Monday, August 25, 2008
The Indian Market is expected to have positive opening as the US market closed in green and Asian markets are trading higher. On Friday, the market closed with gains after paring its initial gains. The domestic market opened on negative note due to rise in crude oil prices along with inflation number and weak Asian markets. Inflation for the week ended 9th august 2008, stood at 12.63% from 12.44% of previous week. Inflation was 4.24% during the corresponding week last year. Further as investors took calculative steps to book their positions and market turned unstable. Strong buying in some stocks led market to gain some ground since mid session and further extended its gains till the end of session. Favorable cues from European markets also added to positive sentiments in second half of session. NSE Nifty ended above 4,300 mark and BSE Sensex above 14,400 level. From the sectoral front, buying was seen in Metal, Oil & Gas, Bank, Consumer Durables and Auto stock. Mid caps also recovered to end in green while Small caps stocks closed lower The BSE Sensex closed higher by 157.76 points at 14,401.59 and NSE Nifty ended up by 43.60 points at 4,327.45. The BSE Mid Caps closed with gains of 19.39 points at 5,726.85 while Small Cap down by 11.17 points at 6,925.85. We expect that market may gain further ground during the trading session.
On Friday, the US market was closed higher after speculation that a purchase of Lehman Brothers would end the worst slump by financial shares since at least 1962. The Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) closed higher by 197.85 points to close at 11,628.06. The NASDAQ index increased by 34.33 points to close at 2,414.71 and the S&P 500 (SPX) gained 14.48 points to close at 1,292.20.
Indian ADRs ended up. In technology sector, Infosys ended higher by (3.23%) followed by Wipro advanced by (2.11%), Satyam by (0.60%) and Patni Computers by (0.47%). In banking sector HDFC bank and ICICI Bank gained (2.64%) and (1.85%). In telecommunication sector, Tata Communication ended up by (2.701%) and MTNL ended up by (1.85%). Sterlite industries increased by (1.48%).
Today the major stock markets in Asia are trading higher on Wall Street gains. Hang Seng index is trading higher by 545.44 points at 20,937.50 along with Japan’s Nikkei trading up by 232.98 points at 12,899.02, Taiwan Weighted trading 6.970.22 gained by 58.58 points and Singapore''s Straits Times is advancedby 25.39 points at 2,748.69.
The FIIs on Friday stood as net seller in equity and net buyer in debt. The gross equity purchased was Rs1,419.90 Crore and the gross debt purchased was Rs130.20 Crore while the gross equity sold stood at Rs1,698.00 Crore and gross debt sold stood at Rs75.10 Crore. Therefore, the net investment of equity reported was (Rs278.10) Crore and net debt was Rs55.10 Crore.
Indian Rupee ended strong at 43.42/43 per USD on Friday, 0.2% stronger than 43.51/52 at close on Thursday. Rupee got strength on inflows from a foreign investment and gains in the stock market.
Today, Nifty has support at 4,269 and resistance at 4,511 and BSE Sensex has support at 14,146 and resistance at 14,926.
Friday’s gain fails to wipe out the weekly losses
Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae remained the headlines during the course of the week that ended on Friday, 22 August, 2008. The battered financial sector, negative data on the housing front, volatile crude prices and a few earning reports dominated the headlines during the week. Dollar remained relatively strong though lost 1.2% to the euro during the course of the week. Stocks at Wall Street registered losses on all the days of the week barring the last day, Friday, 22 August. Volume of trading remained relatively light during the course of the week.
The Dow Jones Industrial Average lost 31.84 points for the week to end at 11,628.06. Tech - heavy Nasdaq lost 37.81 points at 2,414.71. S&P 500 lost 6 points to end at 1,292.2.
The financials sector continued to be under pressure even today after Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac reports that they will need to be bailed out by the federal government sooner than was previously thought. This continued to create turmoil in the finance sector off and on.
The sector also came under pressure after Bank of America was named in The Wall Street Journal as being the focus of increased probes from the New York Attorney General regarding auction rate securities. S&P Financial sector dropped 2.4% and 6.5%, respectively, in the first two days of trading.
In the US stock market on Friday, 22 August, despite low volumes, US stocks rallied. The rally was broad based and there were a couple of catalysts for the rally. Comments from famous investor Warren Buffet and Fed Chairman Ben Bernanke gave US stocks a good reason to rally on Friday. The dollar also strengthened and financial sector also climbed up on reports that Korea Development Bank has shown interest in acquiring Lehman Brothers.
The Dow Jones industrial Average ended the day with a gain of 197.85 points at 11,628.06. The Nasdaq Composite Index, finished higher by 34.3 points at 2,414.71. S&P 500 finished higher by 14.48 points at 1,292.2.
Famed investor Warren Buffett stated in an interview that Fannie Mae and Freddie Macare looking for private investment and also offered positive comments on the attractive values currently offered by stocks and said that he doesn't have any bets against the dollar.
Elsewhere, Fed Chairman Ben Bernanke said on Friday that the declines in commodity prices and the stability of the dollar are encouraging as their trends are likely to slow inflation. He also stated that inflation will be further helped as the U.S. economy falls short of its growth potential for a time. Still, the inflation outlook is highly uncertain.
The economic data seen during the week were mixed, but mostly negative in nature. The Commerce Department reported that the number of new homes starting construction in July has sharply dropped. The number of new single-family permits dropped to the lowest level in 26 years. Builders are cutting back their production of new homes and trying to work off unsold inventory. Rising foreclosures on existing homes are complicating the builders' efforts to bring supply back down to meet sluggish demand. Housing starts fell 11% to a seasonally adjusted annual rate of 965,000 in July, 2008.It marked the lowest level for housing starts in 17 years. June's starts were revised higher to a 1.084 million annual pace. Housing starts are down 29.6% in the past year.
The Labor Department reported that U.S. producer prices rose by a bigger-than-expected 1.2% in July. It was driven higher by prices for energy, food and other products. Market was looking for an increase of 0.3% in July. Excluding food and energy, producer prices rose 0.7% in the month, which was also higher than expected. In July, energy prices rose 3.1% and food prices climbed by 0.3%.
Also, initial jobless claims for the week ending 16 August totaled 432,000, which was below the 440,000 expected. Claims fell 13,000 relative to the prior week's downwardly revised total. Still, the 4-week moving average for jobless claims advanced to 445,750 from 438,500.
In a separate report, the Conference Board in USA reported that the leading economic indicators for July dipped 0.7%. The leading index is designed to forecast turning points in the economy. Market was looking for a 0.2% decline. The report pointed to slow growth the rest of the year and possibly an economy grinding to a halt.
Among earning report for the week, Dow component Hewlett-Packard turned in another solid earnings report and provided a reassuring outlook. Meanwhile, several retailers, including Home Depot, Target and Gap reported relatively good results.
At the crude market at US on Friday, crude-oil futures dropped more than 5%, reversing the rally in the previous session, as a stronger U.S. dollar and ongoing concerns about a slowdown in demand pressured crude prices. Crude prices for October delivery closed at $114.59 (lower by $6.6 or 5.4%). For the week it managed to end higher by a little 0.6%.
For the week, indices registered little losses. In percentage terms, Dow and Nasdaq lost 0.3% and 1.5% respectively. S&P 500 lost 0.5%. Negative economic reports and Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae dominated the headlines during the week which witnessed relatively less volumes in trading. Indices registered gains only on the last day of the week.
For the year, Dow, Nasdaq and S&P 500 are down by 12.3%, 12% and 9% respectively.
Developments surrounding the Government sponsored enterprises (GSEs) will be the thing to watch in the coming week, along with oil prices and some key economic reports for existing home sales, new home sales, Q2 GDP (revised), and personal income and spending.
The benchmark indices, Sensex and Nifty, are expected to commence on a firm note and witness significant rally during intra-day trades, as international markets backed by firm US and Asian indices may help the sentiment remain buoyant. Among the Asian majors, Hangsang Index has surged 2.74% at 20951.08 while Nikkei & Straits Times Index has scaled up above 1% each. On the technical front, the Nifty could test in the 4400-4435 range on the upside and has supports in the 4280 - 4250 range, while the Sensex has a likely support at 14220 and may face resistance at 14550.
US indices posted significant gains on Friday on sharp slump in oil prices. As a result, the Dow Jones flared up by 198 points at 11,628, while the Nasdaq added 34 points to close at 2415.
All of the Indian ADRs traded firm on the US bourses except Rediff. Tata Motors led the pack with gains of 4.30% while Infosys, Wipro, HDFC Bank, VSNL, Dr Reddy, ICICI Bank and MTNL gained around 1-3% each. However, Satyam and Patni Computers ended with marginal gains.
Oil prices fell steeply on Friday, as the dollar strengthened and investors worried that a decline in demand will spread outside the United States. Crude oil prices for September delivery fell $6.59 to close at $114.59 a barrel. In the commodity space, the Comex gold for December delivery declined $5.50 to settle at $833.50 an ounce.
Nifty (4327) Sup 4285 Res 4395
Buy Glenmark (661)
SL 655 Target 673, 677
Buy SAIL (150)
SL 147 Target 156, 158
Buy Bharti Airtel (809)
SL 800 Target 824, 828
Buy Reliance Infra (980)
SL 971 Target 995, 1000
Sell GE Shipping (383)
SL 387 Target 375, 373
Stretching his hand out to catch the stars, he forgets the flowers at his feet.
With bulls and the bears appearing to be unsure of their plan of action, it might help to take a fresh approach to your investments. While it is good to take a long term approach in equities, no harm in picking up some flowers (stocks for short term) on the way, keeping it in your vase as long as they look good and fresh and getting rid of it they moment it loses appeal. For picking stars, you have all the time and India Infoline research to help you. Selective buying can be done at lower levels. But, be sure to lock in some gains after every spurt. The key levels to watch on the Nifty are 4150 on the downside and 4650 on the higher side.
The bulls are constrained by concerns over deteriorating macro-economic picture, persistent FII outflows and grim global scenario. The bears are edgy due to the correction in the commodity complex, particularly in crude oil, which is powering the current rally in equities. As a result, the market may remain sideways for a while until we get a fresh trigger, for a move either way. The market is precariously poised at this stage, and the risk of a sharp dip and an upsurge are evenly balanced.
Global factors will continue to drive the sentiment, along with local issues such as fears of another round of monetary tightening. Corporate earnings, politics and of course the Indo-US nuke deal are some of the other key events.
Today, we expect the market to extend Friday's late rebound, purely on the basis of a global rally. Crude oil, which surged above $121 per barrel on Aug. 21, has slid back to $114 levels. The bulls may end on a high note today, and perhaps during the week if oil doesn't rebound again.
We will have the F&O expiry on Thursday. The rollovers have been quite low, reinforcing the view that neither the bulls nor the bears are willing to carry forward their positions into September. So, no major upheavals are expected on the derivative side of the market.
FIIs were net sellers of Rs2.39bn (provisional) in the cash segment on Friday. Local institutions were net buyers of Rs4.5bn. In the F&O segment, the foreign funds were net sellers of Rs5.94bn. On Thursday, the FIIs were net sellers of Rs2.78bn in the cash segment. Mutual Funds were net sellers of Rs975mn.
Tata Motors will remain in the thick of things due to the ongoing Singur imbroglio and other fundamental factors. Kolte Patil could come under some pressure amid reports that its JV plans with a UK firm for hospitality business are in disarray. Zensar Tech might gain amid reports of the company scouting for acquisitions abroad. CCCL is likely to advance as it has emerged as the lowest bidder for Terminal building works at the Chennai airport in partnership with Canada's Herve Pomerleau International.
Jet Airways could be in action amid reports of a merger with low-cost arm JetLite and another round of hike in air fares. Cement stocks might attract some attention as reports suggest companies are likely to raise prices soon. Steel companies will remain in focus amid continuing friction with the Government over product prices. Ditto with sugar shares, as the Government is considering moves to check rising prices.
Asian stocks were up smartly this morning, helping the region's benchmark index rebound from a two-year low, after oil slumped and on speculation that a possible investment in Lehman Brothers will ease concerns over credit losses.
The MSCI Asia Pacific Index gained 1% to 122.84 as of 10:06 a.m. in Tokyo, rebounding from a four-week, 8.5% decline that sent the index to the lowest since July 24, 2006. Energy companies were the only gauge to decline among the index's 10 industry groups.
The Nikkei in Tokyo was last up 1.8% while the Hang Seng in Hong Kong jumped by nearly 3%. The Shanghai Composite in China gained 1.25% while the Kospi in Seoul rose 0.6%. The Straits Times in Singapore was up 1% while the Taiex in Taiwan advanced 1.4%.
US shares jumped on Friday after oil prices slumped and the dollar strengthened. Shares of financial companies advanced amid growing speculation over the buyout of Lehman Brothers. Encouraging comments from Federal Reserve chairman Ben Bernanke on inflation also boosted sentiment at the end of a tough week.
The S&P 500 Index added 14.48 points, or 1.1%, to 1,292.20. The Dow Jones Industrial Average rallied 197.85 points, or 1.7%, to 11,628.06. The Nasdaq Composite rose 34 points or 1.4% to end at 2,414.
Market breadth was positive and volume was light. Only 888mn shares changed hands on the New York Stock Exchange, the fewest for a full trading session since December 26, 2007. Volume this week was 35% less than the year-to-date average.
The Dow posted a 0.3% weekly drop, while the Nasdaq was down 1.5%. The S&P 500 shed 0.5% over the past five days, its first weekly drop since July.
Oil prices slid, erasing the previous day's rally, as a stronger US currency weighed on dollar-denominated commodity prices.
US light crude oil for October delivery fell US$6.59 or 5.4% to settle at US$114.59 per barrel on the New York Mercantile Exchange, posting its biggest one-day slide in dollars since 1991. Crude oil has tumbled since peaking at US$147.27 per barrel on July 11.
Retail gas prices dropped overnight, extending the downward trend for a 36th day, according to a survey of gas station credit-card activity.
In the bond market, Treasury prices fell, raising the yield on the benchmark 10-year note to 3.86% from 3.83% late on Wednesday. COMEX gold for October delivery fell US$10.90 to US$824.10 an ounce.
European shares gained on Friday, buoyed by strength in banks, autos and airlines. The pan-European Dow Jones Stoxx 600 index gained 1.4% to 282.29 as banks snapped a three-session losing streak. The UK's FTSE 100 climbed 1.7% at 5,462.70, while Germany's DAX 30 advanced 1.6% to 6,335.65 and the French CAC-40 rose 1.6% to 4,374.17.
Emerging markets finished mixed. Brazil's Bovespa was down 0.15% to 55,850 while Mexico's IPC index was up 1.3% at 26,875. The RTS index in Russia gained 1.2% to 1701 and the ISE National-30 index in Turkey rallied 3.3% to 50,513.
Markets may advance further
It was a sweet end to the last trading session of the week with key indices finishing on a positive note. However on the whole Sensex and Nifty lost over 2% during the week.
Markets players shrugged off spike in the inflation, crude oil prices and weak Asian markets and ended with healthy gains.
Volatility was visible throughout the trading session; however, buying momentum in the metal, banking and FMCG stocks kept the uptrend going.
Among the 30-components of Sensex, 24 stocks were in the green and only 6 stocks were in red. Reliance Industries, HDFC, Infosys and HDFC Bank were among the major gainers. On the other hand, Satyam, L&T and NTPC were among the major laggards.
Finally, the benchmark Sensex gained 157 points to close at 14,401 and Nifty ended 43 points higher to close at 4,327.
Shares of BEML have gained by a percent to Rs726 after the Railway Board announced that it is placing developmental order for six rakes. These SS EMUs will be replacing the existing corten steel EMUs in a phased manner now running in Mumbai and Chennai suburbs. The total requirement is of 3000 cars with a business potential of Rs50bn in the coming years.
The scrip touched an intra-day high of Rs740 and a low of Rs718 and recorded volumes of over 6,000 shares on BSE.
Tata Motors ended 2% higher to Rs425. The company announced that it is planning to move the small car plant from West Bengal if protests against the company continue in the state. The scrip touched an intra-day high of Rs428 and a low of Rs410 and recorded volumes of over 1,00,000 shares on BSE.
Shares of PVR Ltd gained by over 2% to Rs193 after the company announced that M/s. Sunrise Infotainment Pvt. Ltd. a 100% Subsidiary of PVR Ltd which operates a Six Screens Multiplex with 1,783 seats, has been granted the exemption from the payment of Entertainment Tax, by the Maharashtra Government for a period of five years w.e.f. August 20, 2008.
The exemption available to the Multiplex is as under:
For the first three year exemption is available 100% of the entertainment tax and for the Fourth & Fifth year Exemption is available 75% of the Entertainment tax. The current entertainment tax on the cinema ticket is 45% of the admission price.
The scrip touched an intra-day high of Rs203 and a low of Rs186 and recorded volumes of over 43,000 shares on BSE.
Shares of IOC declined by over 4% to Rs396 after Fitch Ratings today affirmed IOC’s Long-term foreign currency Issuer Default Rating at 'BBB-' (BBB minus), its National Long-term issuer rating at 'AAA(ind)', and revised the Outlook on both ratings to Negative from Stable. The scrip touched an intra-day high of Rs404 and a low of Rs392 and recorded volumes of over 1,00,000 shares on BSE.
Shares of Era Infra lost ground and slipped by 1% to Rs478 after the company announced that the company (Construction & Contracts Division) has bagged a contract worth Rs1.11bn for Up-gradation, renovation and new construction for Commonwealth Games 2010 in J N Stadium Sports Complex, New Delhi. SH. The scrip touched an intra-day high of Rs493 and a low of Rs472 and recorded volumes of over 26,000 shares on BSE.
Delhi High Court dismisses COAI’s petition challenging government’s decision to allow Reliance Communications to offer both CDMA and GSM services under a single license. (DNA)
Star Union Dai-ichi, a proposed new insurance venture promoted by Bank of India, Dai-ichi and Union Bank, to begin operations with a capital base of Rs2.5bn.(BL)
M&M is looking at launching hybrid & biofuel SUVs in the US.(ET)
NTPC plans to stay out of Reliance Industries-RNRL legal dispute.(BS)
Yes Bank plans to launch its asset reconstruction business by year-end.(Mint)
Maharashtra chief minister has offered to host Tata Motors’ Nano project in the state.(ET)
Tata Tea is scouting for acquisitions in the US and Russia.(DNA)
Lavasa Corp, an HCC group company, plans to raise more funds through an IPO.(FE)
Aditya Birla Nuvo firms up its fertilizer plans.(BS)
New Silk Route, 3i and Kotak join the race to acquire Star India’s stake in Balaji Telefilms.(ET)
Air India sees a loss of US$459mn for FY08.(FE)
Piramal Life Sciences gets approval from drug controller to take forward its clinical trial on two of its molecules in India.(TOI)
Lanco Infratech to foray into solar sector.(BL)
Centre is likely to go ahead with the IPO of Satluj Jal Vidyut Nigam.(DNA)
A proxy battle breaks out for control of Gujarat Heavy Chemicals.(BS)
Bharti Airtel is studying the possibility of entering the digital cinema business.(BS)
Reliance Industries and Reliance Infrastructure are only two companies to have qualified for US$8bn coal into oil project.(TOI)
Marico shelves price hike plan.(ET)
BSEL Infrastructure Realty will develop a high-rise residential apartment complex in Malaysia.(BL)
Videocon says it would go ahead with its proposed Rs80bn LCD and semi-conductor production facility in Maharashtra.(FE)
Take Solutions to invest Rs300mn in a new facility in the SEZ at Shriram Gateway near Chennai.(BL)
ONGC Videsh may take a Russian partner to counter Chinese firm Sinopec in the battle for acquisition of Imperial Energy.(FE)
Phoenix Mills is setting up a Rs8.5bn mall and IT park in Chennai.(BL)
MCX to launch futures trading in three farm products by next month.(TOI)
Tata Motors to cut Jaguar, Land Rover production.(BS)
GVK-promoted Mumbai International Airport is likely to get approval from civil aviation ministry for hiking aeronautical charges by 10%.(DNA)
Daiichi-Ranbaxy FDI plan may be placed before Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs.(BL)
Air fares likely to go up further by 10% according to CEO of Jet Airways.(FE)
Commercial vehicle maker Eicher Motors says its has finalized JV deal with Swedish truck maker A B Volvo for making trucks and buses.(DNA)
Radico Khaitan to launch two premium brands in the next fifteen months.(ET)
Tata Motors launches new version, ‘Indica Vista’, of its flagship passenger car.(BL)
Opto Circuits in talks to acquire European firm.(ET)
Zensar Technologies is scouting for acquisitions in Germany or Switzerland.(ET)
Jetlite may merged with Jet Airways this year.(ET)
Tatas in the lead for Tamil Nadu SEZ.(TOI)
California Software Co., a Chennai-based software services firm, is close to buying a UK-based firm for US$60mn.(DNA)
ONGC Videsh mulls buying institutional holding in Imperial Energy.(BS)
JK Lakshmi Cement lines up Rs10bn for 5 RMC plants.(BS)
Hindalco Industries has got 50% of its Rs49.9bn rights issue underwritten.(BS)
Tata Motors seeks concession in Uttarakhand.(BS)
Aksh Optifibre plans to close funding worth US$50-80mn to finance its IPTV rollout.(DNA)
Economy Front page
Government mulls launching a scheme for supply of 0.4mn tonnes of subsidized pulses, with a subsidy component of Rs 10,000 per tonne.(BL)
Government is considering re-imposition of 15% export duty on flat steel products.(ET)
Corporate tax collections between April to July 2008 witnessed combined growth rate for advance tax and TDS at 40.3% as against 34.3% in the same period last fiscal.(FE)
Power import policy on cards to boost hydropower development in Himalayan-rim countries for facilitating electricity inflows into India.(BL)
Railways to invest Rs6.5bn to improve port connectivity.(BS)
Railways to commercialize surplus land; to generate Rs40bn in 2008-09.(FE)
IRDA notifies major changes in the investment norms for insurers that will help companies diversify risks.(ET)
DoT set to allocate start up spectrum to companies in Maharashtra, Mumbai, Kolkata and Madhya Pradesh.(Mint)
NCAER projects moderation in GDP growth to 7.8% for current fiscal from earlier estimate of 8.8%.(TOI)
Government set to decontrol pricing of coal, including coal from captive mines.(ET)
Government may release additional sugar in open market.(ET)
SEZ investments to cross Rs2tn by end of 2009.(FE)
Government asks steel companies to cut prices in line with falling global trend.(BL)
Gujarat to float agro-business policy soon.(BS)
Commerce ministry says deemed export benefits can be enjoyed by mega power plants if international competitive bids norms are followed either at the stage power selling or engineering contracts.(ET)
Government pushing to implement the deadline for implementing mandatory blending of 10% ethanol in petrol to next year.(BL)
ASHOK LEYLAND LIMITED
ANNUAL REPORT 2007-2008
Part I - Performance/Operations
The Directors are pleased to present the Annual Report of the Company, together with the audited Accounts, for the year ended March 31, 2008.
Financial Results (Rs. Millions) 2007-2008 2006-2007
Profit before tax 6,381.50 6,045.06
Less: Provision for taxation 1,688.40 1,632.20
4,693.10 4,412.86Add: Transfer from/(to):
Debenture redemption reserve 50.00 135.00
Balance profit from last year 3,616.86 2,303.70
General Reserve (1,000.00) (1,000.00)
Add: Excess provision written back
- Dividend (Including Corporate Dividend Tax) - 29.62
Profit available for appropriation 7,359.96 5,881.18
Dividend 2006-07 - 1,985.81
Proposed Dividend 2007-08 1,997.71 -
Corporate Dividend Tax 339.51 278.51
Balance profit carried to Balance sheet 5,022.74 3,616.86
Earnings per Share (Face Value Re.1/-) - Basic 3.53 3.38
- Diluted 3.53 3.36
The Directors recommend a dividend of 150% (Rs.1.50 per equity share of Re.1/-) for the year ended March 31, 2008. This Dividend will also be payable on the shares arising from conversion of Foreign Currency Convertible Notes (FCCNs) issued in April 2004, to the extent converted upto the Book Closure Date(s).
The domestic market for the Company's products experienced a slowdown in the year under review. Your Company was however able to secure a higher share in the passenger vehicles market. Total sales of vehicles, engines and spares registered increases over the previous year.
The highlights are discussed in detail in the Management Discussion and Analysis Report attached as Annexure-D to this Report.
External Commercial Borrowings (ECBs)
During the financial year, despite a difficult situation in the financial market, the Company contracted for ECBs for a sum of US$ 270 mn. to part fund its capex requirements and overseas investments. Out of the above, the Company has drawn US$ 90 mn. during the year 2007-08 and the balance would be drawn during 2008-09. The Company has fully complied with the guidelines prescribed by RBI in this regard. Research and development, technology absorption, energy conservation etc.
The Company continues to lay emphasis on investing for the future through Research and Development activities. The facilities in the Company?s Technical Centre at Chennai have been further upgraded, to ensure contemporary development capabilities in order to offer competitive products to the market place.
The particulars prescribed by the Companies (Disclosure of Particulars in the Report of Board of Directors) Rules, 1988 relating to Conservation of Energy, Technology Absorption, Foreign Exchange are furnished in Annexure-A to this Report.
Joint Venture with Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Japan The Company will be expanding its business and entering the area of Light Commercial Vehicles with the promotion of Joint Venture with Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Japan. Discussions on the Joint Venture Agreements are in an advanced stage. This will be a major project and will cater not only to the domestic market, but also to the export markets.
Ashley Alteams India Private Ltd.
A Joint Venture Agreement was signed on July 3, 2007 with Alteams O.Y. Finland, for the manufacture and sale of High Pressure Die Casting components for the telecom and automotive industries, including for the Company?s own requirements. Ashley Alteams India Private Ltd., the Joint Venture Company, is making steady progress in the implementation of the project. Commencement of commercial production is expected by end 2008.
Automotive Infotronics Private Ltd.
A Joint Venture Agreement was entered into with Siemens VDO on July 16, 2007 (now known as VDO Automotive A.G. a Company of Continental Corporation, Germany) for design, development and adaptation of electrical and electronic automotive components and customer-specific software applications. Automotive Infotronics Private Ltd., the Joint Venture Company is slated to commence commercial activities during 2008-09.
Ashok Leyland (UAE) LLC, Ras Al Khaimah, UAE
Your Company has made an investment in Ashok Leyland (UAE) LLC for setting up a manufacturing facility at Ras Al Khaimah, UAE. The plant is expected to be commissioned in a phased manner by June 2008. The plant will have capacity to assemble and produce upto 2000 buses per year and will cater to the growing market for the Company's products in UAE and other neighbouring countries. Defiance Testing and Engineering Services, Inc. The investment in Defiance Testing and Engineering Service, Inc. Michigan, USA was made on July 17, 2007. The company is implementing plans to turnaround, despite recessionary conditions in the automobile industry in the USA.
Avia Ashok Leyland Motors s.r.o. (AALM)
The commercial vehicles business of Avia acquired by the Company in 2006, through a special purpose vehicle, has made steady progress during the year 2007. During this period, AALM focused on consolidating its business, setting up processes, integrating its research and product development activities with the Company, widening its market reach, etc. AALM successfully developed and positioned vehicles meeting Euro IV emission, safety and other standards prevailing in Europe and achieved sales in excess of 700 units during the previous calendar year.
Your Company has made an investment in Albonair GmbH for development of vehicle emission treatment / control systems and products. Albonair GmbH will focus on the development, production and sales of exhaust after-treatment systems for environment-friendly diesel engines. Over the longer term, these cost effective systems are also expected to find application in Europe and the USA. The venture has already commenced operations and has been strengthened with the recruitment of appropriate technical personnel.
Foreign Currency Convertible Notes (FCCNs)
The Foreign Currency Convertible Notes (FCCNs) for USD 100 mn. issued in April 2004 are convertible into shares of the Company (Fixed Exchange Rate USD 1 = Rs.44.10). As of March 31, 2008, 99,000 Notes (99%) have already been converted into underlying shares, thereby increasing the paid-up capital as of March 31, 2008. All the procedures consequent to the conversion are being completed on time and these shares, which rank pari passu with the earlier shares in all respects, are tradeable on the Indian Stock Exchanges. The enhanced share capital as on March 31, 2008 and the corresponding revised shareholding pattern are shown in the Corporate Governance Report (Annexure-B) to this Report.
Subdivision of shares
The subdivision of your Company's shares (from a face value of Rs.10/- each to a face value of Re.1/- each) was effected in July 2004. The number of shareholders continues to increase and as on March 31, 2008, the number of shareholders was 303,954 as against 200,091 shareholders as of March 31, 2007. Part II - Corporate matters
Change in the Registered Office of the Company
Your Directors are happy to inform that your Company has constructed a modern Corporate Office at a prestigious location at No.1 Sardar Patel Road, Guindy, Chennai 600 032. The registered office will be shifted to this address shortly.
Your Company has consistently adopted high standards of Corporate Governance. The Code of Conduct for the Board and the Senior Management was adopted by the Company in March 2005. Your Company is fully compliant with the latest guidelines, and has even exceeded them in some aspects. All the Directors (and also the members of the Senior Management of the rank of General Managers and above) have confirmed in writing their compliance and adherence with the Code of Conduct. The details are furnished in Annexure-B to this Report.
The certification by the Managing Director regarding the Code of Conduct, as required by SEBI guidelines, is also furnished separately.
The Statutory Auditors of the Company have examined the Company's compliance, and have certified the same, as required under SEBI guidelines. Such certificate is reproduced as Annexure-C to this Report.
The Directors' Responsibility Statement as required under Section 217(2AA) of the Companies Act, 1956 is furnished in Annexure-E to this Report.
The particulars of employees as prescribed by the Companies (particulars of employees) Rules, 1975 are furnished in Annexure-F to this Report.
The CEO/CFO certification as required under the SEBI guidelines is attached - as Annexure-G to this Report. Directors
The present term of Mr R Seshasayee, Managing Director is due to expire on May 31, 2009. Under his stewardship, the Company has scaled great heights and has expanded its operations significantly. The Company has embarked on several new initiatives, not only in India, but globally. Bearing in mind the above, the Remuneration Committee and the Board consider it essential to continue to secure his leadership of the Company and have decided to foreclose / overlap the last year of his current term and has re-appointed him as Managing Director for a period of three years from 1/4/2008 to 31/3/2011 with a suitable revision in the terms of remuneration, subject to the approval of the shareholders at the ensuing General Meeting. Necessary resolutions relating to his re-appointment are being placed before the shareholders for approval.
Mr. Vinod K Dasari, the Chief Operating Officer of the Company, who was co-opted to the Board as an Additional Director vacates office at the ensuing Annual General Meeting.
Notice under Section 257 of the Companies Act, 1956 has been received from a member proposing his appointment as a Director. Necessary resolution relating to his appointment as Wholetime Director is also being placed before the shareholders for approval.
Mr. D.J. Balaji Rao, Mr P N Ghatalia and Mr D G Hinduja, Directors, retire by rotation at the forthcoming Annual General Meeting and are eligible for re-appointment. Necessary resolutions are being placed before the shareholders for approval.
Mr. D.J. Balaji Rao and Mr. P N Ghatalia are Independent Directors and Chairman of the Remuneration Committee and Audit Committee of the Board respectively. Mr D G Hinduja is a Promoter Director.
The Government has stipulated Cost Audit of the Company's records in respect of motor vehicles as well as engines. M/s Geeyes & Co., Cost Auditors have carried out these audits. Their findings have been satisfactory.
As directed by Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI), Secretarial Audit is being carried out at the specified periodicity by a Practicing Company Secretary. The findings of the Secretarial Audit have been satisfactory.
M/s M S Krishnaswami & Rajan, Chartered Accountants and M/s Deloitte Haskins & Sells, Chartered Accountants, retire at the close of this Annual General Meeting and are eligible for re-appointment. The Company has received confirmation from both the firms that their appointment will be within the limits prescribed under Section 224(1B) of the Companies Act, 1956. The Audit Committee of the Board has recommended their re-appointment. The necessary resolution is being placed before the shareholders for approval.
The Directors wish to express their appreciation of the continued co-operation of the Central and State Governments, bankers, financial institutions, customers, dealers and suppliers and also the valuable assistance and advice received from major shareholders Hinduja Automotive Limited, the Hinduja Group, and all the shareholders. The Directors also wish to thank all the employees for their contribution, support and continued co-operation through the year.
On behalf of the Board of Directors
Chennai R.J. SHAHANEYMay 8, 2008 Chairman
(A) Conservation of Energy
All manufacturing plants have implemented various initiatives for conservation of energy (around 1.2 mn. electrical units have been saved leading to significant savings in costs) during 2007-2008.
A few such key initiatives are:
* Maintenance of power factor throughout the year, through optimum use of capacitor banks.
* Use of wind power (Out of total electricity consumed, 36% is the share of wind power).
* Optimisation of compressed air system.
(B) Technology absorption
Research and Development (R & D)
1. Specific areas in which R & D carried out by the Company
- 'H' series 6 cylinder engines rated at 152 KW (with common rail) and 135 KW, both meeting Bharat Stage III norms, now in commercial production.
- Fully built cabs introduced on tractor models with GVW ratings of 49 and 40 tonnes.
- Pilot batch of 8X2 vehicles being launched in the market.
2. Benefits derived as a result of the above R & D
- Compliance with emission standards, present and proposed from 2010.
- Wider range of vehicles with enhanced value to customer.- Safer cabs.
3. Future Plan of Action
- Quantum improvement in processes and skill building to meet the emerging competitive scenario in the market.
- Development of more environment friendly fuel efficient and safe vehicles.
4. Expenditure on R & D
Revenue(excluding depreciation) 1068.84
Total R & D Expenditureas % of total turnover 2.3%
(C) Foreign Exchange Earnings and Outgo
Details of earnings and outgo of foreign exchange are given in Schedules 1.5 to 1.8 of Notes to the Accounts. The Company continues to strive to improve its export earnings.
Directors' Responsibility statement as per Section 217(2AA) of the Companies Act, 1956
Responsibility in relation to financial statements
The financial statements have been prepared in conformity, in all material respects, with the generally accepted accounting principles in India and the Accounting Standards prescribed by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India in a consistent manner and supported by reasonable and prudent judgements and estimates. The Directors believe that the financial statements reflect true and fair view of the financial position as on 31.3.2008 and of the results of operations for the year ended 31.3.2008.
The financial statements have been audited by M/s M S Krishnaswami & Rajan and M/s Deloitte Haskins & Sells in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards, which include an assessment of the systems of internal controls and tests of transactions to the extent considered necessary by them to support their opinion.
In the opinion of the Directors, the Company will be in a position to carry on its existing commercial vehicles / engines business and accordingly it is considered appropriate to prepare the financial statements on the basis of going concern.
Maintenance of accounting records & Internal controls
The Company has taken proper and sufficient care for the maintenance of adequate accounting records as required by various Statutes.
Directors have overall responsibility for the Company's internal control system, which is designed to provide a reasonable assurance for safeguarding of assets, reliability of financial records and for preventing and detecting fraud and other irregularities.
The system of internal control is monitored by the internal audit function, which encompasses the examination and evaluation of the adequacy and effectiveness of the system of internal control and quality of performance in carrying out assigned responsibilities. Internal Audit Department interacts with all levels of management and the Statutory Auditors, and reports significant issues to the Audit Committee of the Board.
Audit Committee supervises the financial reporting process through review of accounting and reporting practices, financial and accounting controls and financial statements. Audit Committee also periodically interacts with internal and statutory auditors to ensure quality and veracity of Company?saccounts.
Internal Auditors, Audit Committee and Statutory Auditors have full and free access to all the information and records as considered necessary to carry out their responsibilities. All the issues raised by them have been suitably acted upon and followed up.
MANAGEMENT DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
A. Economy and Market trends
Global economy grew strongly although the current turbulence in financial markets has clouded prospects. The growth was supported by generally sound fundamentals and strong momentum in emerging market economies.
Looking ahead, contribution from developing countries to the total GDP growth is expected to sustain at higher levels. This is likely to result in huge capital inflows into the developing countries. The share of the developing countries in world trade will also continue to increase, resulting in significant export opportunities. However, global inflation levels, fuelled by the sharp increase in global commodity prices as well as by the growth of developing countries such as China and India, are expected to remain high.
After robust growth over the past few years, Indian economy witnessed a slowdown during 2007-08. GDP growth for 2007-08 as projected by the Government at 8.7% shows a deceleration from the high growth of 9.4% and 9.6%, respectively, in the previous two years. With the economy modernizing, globalizing and growing rapidly, some degree of cyclical fluctuation is to be expected. Last year, inflation flared up driven primarily by increase in the prices of coal and crude oil. This has, to some extent, adversely impacted the pace of economic growth in the short term, particularly the growth in the industrial sector, compared to the previous year.
Accompanying the recent moderation in industrial growth, the growth performance of some segments of the infrastructure sector such as power generation and movement of railway freight, as also the production of universal intermediates such as steel, cement and petroleum, have shown subdued performance.
India's Eleventh five year plan paper projects a GDP growth of 8.5% through a boost to growth in the agriculture sector, improving infrastructure aggressively and encouraging Public Private Partnerships for construction and operations of infrastructure services such as highways, airports and ports etc. The country is expected to continue the strong momentum of the past and take the economy back on the growth path of around 9%.
Commercial Vehicle (CV) Industry
The share of 'Second hemisphere' markets in the Global Commercial Vehicle market is increasing. BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) countries are emerging as the key markets among the 'Second hemisphere' countries. Other'Second hemisphere' markets such as Eastern Europe, Latin America, and ASEAN are also witnessing strong growth.
With India being the next large and lucrative market after China, global players are entering the Indian market in association with local partners. Besides, local players are also diversifying their business to have a sizeable share in the total commercial vehicle market. With global majors planning to invest around Rs. 60 billion in the coming year to create capacities, the Indian CV market is likely to get crowded.
Technology trends in the global commercial vehicle industry are being increasingly driven by tighter emission standards and demanding customer requirements. These are set to dictate tougher tasks to new product development teams worldwide in terms of providing products with high 'value-cost' equation.
The Indian commercial vehicle market continues to accelerate towards the ?hub and spoke? model present in the mature markets worldwide. Of the total industry volume in the Indian commercial vehicle industry over the last few years, contribution from vehicles in the sub 7.5 T GVW and greater than 16 T GVW segments has been continuously increasing.
Economic growth in agricultural and industrial sectors coupled with the Government's emphasis on infrastructure development will continue to fuel the demand in India for commercial vehicles. The Automotive Mission Plan 2016, approved by the Government, is focusing on doubling the contribution of automobile industry to the country's GDP by 2016. The Government has indicated that a balanced approach would be pursued with regard to trade agreements with countries/regions such as ASEAN, China, Sri Lanka, Latin America and Middle East to provide growth opportunities for the Indian automotive industry.
Product trends in the Indian commercial vehicle market point towards an increase in the electronics content in vehicles and a shift towards higher power to-weight ratios. These trends will also be driven by legislations pertaining to vehicle safety and comfort including the imminent 'Bus Body Code' and 'Truck Code'. These measures to create an organized and regulated commercial vehicle industry in the country will enable commercial vehicle manufacturers to broaden their presence across the value chain and offer products with much higher levels of value addition than those presently available.
The logistics industry in India is expected to undergo large scale consolidation with the emergence of more organized players who would use high end commercial vehicles for long hauls and light commercial vehicles for the last mile distribution. Increasing awareness of all stakeholders in the Indian transport and logistics sector will drive the demand for fully built vehicle solutions that are engineered for specific applications.
Increasing urbanization has highlighted the need for mass rapid passenger transportation within the cities. Government bodies are looking at a Bus Rapid Transport Systems (BRTS) as a possible solution. Product trends for city buses will be significantly driven by these developments. In addition to this, the development of the road network between cities will influence product trends for inter-city buses.
B. Ashok Leyland-The year in brief
Indian medium and heavy commercial vehicle industry shrunk marginally during 2007-08 compared to 2006-07. The Company sold 76,045 vehicles in the Indian market during the fiscal 2007-08. The Company registered significant market share improvement in the bus segment but lost market share in the truck segment mainly due to production constraints arising out of supply chain bottlenecks. These have been addressed satisfactorily and the Company is on course to recover lost ground. The 'New Gen' cabin, expected to be bulk produced in 2008-09, will further aid this exercise.
2007-08 2006-07 2005-06 2004-05 2003-04 2002-03 2001-02
Buses 8420 9925 11354 10777 14168 12006 18198 Trucks 19103 23969 33518 37151 42608 65069 57847
The Company sold 7,285 vehicles in the overseas markets during 2007-08 - representing an increase of approximately 21% over the previous year.
Engines business has shown robust growth during 2007-08. A total of 12,169 engines were sold, including engines sold under the LEYPOWER brand of generator sets, a new line of business being pursued by the Company.
Spare parts sales amounted to Rs. 7,236 million during 2007-08, registering a growth of 45%. This includes the sale of knocked down kits to the Indian Defence establishment.
The Company fully utilized its production capacity of 84,000 vehicles across the five existing manufacturing units. The development activities for the new facility at Uttarakhand have been progressing as scheduled. This unit, designed for an annual capacity of 50,000 vehicles, is expected to be functional before June 2010.
The 'Mission Summit' initiative that was kick started last year to promote innovation, was responsible for the concept and development of the iBus, exhibited at the Auto Expo in January 2008. The team has since been involved in developing a strategy for the commercialization of the iBus. Besides this, the 'Mission Summit' team is exploring many other innovative concepts.
The Six Sigma initiative has been extended to all functional areas and the second wave of training and associated projects have successfully concluded. The third wave of training is all set to roll out shortly. With this, the Six Sigma initiative is expected to mature into a self sustaining process.
The Company's initiative to nurture future leaders is showing promising results. A number of initiatives put forward by the cross functional team of Young Executives (YEs) as part of their annual business plan are on their way to implementation.
The Company has always endeavoured to offer its customers the best value proposition in the market through product innovations and refinement and is pursuing the same with ever increasing vigour. Development programmes to bring out the next generation of key aggregates are currently underway.
The Company is executing a transformational change programme, with external assistance, to facilitate the development and marketing of winning products to suit the changing customer requirements. This would be facilitated by enhancing competence in project management, lean product development process, decision making and governance, portfolio and pipeline management as well as technology management.
JV with Nissan Motors
To become a full range player, the Company has entered into a joint venture with Nissan Motors Co. Ltd., Japan to develop and produce light commercial vehicles for both the domestic and export markets. The two organizations have been working closely over the past few months and the alliance is expected to roll out its first product by 2010-11.
JV with Continental AG
Vehicle electronics is expected to play an increasingly important role in the Indian automotive sector in the years to come. The Company has entered into a joint venture with the Europe based Continental Group (who acquired Siemens VDO in September 2007) to develop and produce cutting edge vehicle electronics products.
The Company has made an investment in Albonair GmbH for development of cost effective vehicle emission treatment/ control systems and products, which, over the longer term, are expected to find application in the first hemisphere markets as well. The venture has already commenced operations and has been strengthened with the recruitment of appropriate technical personnel.
Ashley Alteams India Private Ltd.
The Company entered into a joint venture with Alteams O.Y., Finland, for the manufacture and sale of High Pressure Die Casting components. Ashley Alteams India Private Ltd., the joint venture Company, is making steady progress in the implementation of the project and will cater to telecom and automotive industry. Commencement of commercial production is expected by end 2008.
Avia Ashok Leyland Motors s.r.o. (AALM)
The Commercial Vehicles business of Avia made steady progress during the year 2007. AALM focused on initiatives to consolidate its business, set up the processes, integrate product development activities with the Company and widen its market reach. The company achieved sales in excess of 700 units during the previous calendar year.
C. Risk Management
The Commercial Vehicles business has a specific set of risk characteristics, which need to be carefully evaluated, managed and mitigated. In order to effectively manage the cyclical nature of demand, Management has adopted an internal risk management protocol. Risk Management covers the entire process of business, including, inter alia, capital investment, technology development and customer acquisition / retention.
Continuance of the reform process and emphasis on infrastructure and agriculture augur well for the road transport sector. However, given the cyclical nature of demand in the Commercial Vehicles industry, capacity build up plans are periodically reassessed, taking into account market conditions and demand forecast.
The Company has plans to increase its annual capacity to 184,000 vehicles (medium and heavy duty vehicles) over next two / three years. Capacity addition through de-bottlenecking engine / gear box manufacturing facilities at Ennore unit is nearing completion. This would enable the Company to overcome capacity constraints during the coming years. In addition, the Company is moving ahead with capacity addition of 50000 vehicles per year at the Uttarakhand plant which needs to be completed before March 2010 to avail the fiscal benefits. The Company is pursuing plans to increase the share of non-cyclical business including exports, non-auto engines and sale to Defence sector to mitigate the impact of cyclicality.
Competition in the domestic Commercial Vehicles market has increased significantly with many global OEMs setting up manufacturing base. Consequent to the policy of progressive opening up of the market, customs duty, as a trade barrier, is likely to lose its influence. The Company is preparing to face these challenges through focused R & D efforts in designing / developing vehicles that offer appropriate transport solutions and meet the changing preferences of customers.
Rising fuel prices in the international market, coupled with competitive pressures to contain freight rates, could lead to erosion in vehicle operators' margins, thereby leading to lower demand. However, increased use of heavy tonnage vehicles for moving large freight loads has reduced the tonne / km cost. This has helped improve the operational viability for the vehicle operators.
There are continuing concerns on input cost increases particularly steel and rubber, due to commodity price movements. In a competitive market, the Company may not be able to pass on the cost increases fully through pricing action. Hence, margins may come under pressure.
The Company is taking steps to competitively procure components through global sourcing, reduce cost through Value Engineering and improve productivity through shop floor initiatives.
The Company's foreign exchange exposure has increased manifold, through contracting External Commercial Borrowings of US$ 315 mn. over the years. Exports are likely to cross US$ 250 mn. in the next 3 to 4 years.
Strengthening of the Rupee, if it continues, can adversely affect realization from exports. However, the Company has an active, centralized treasury department, assisted by technical experts to mitigate adverse effects of currency / interest rate fluctuations. Considering the extent of capital expenditure (over Rs. 30,000 mn.) in the next three years, the Company may face uncertainty in fund availability at reasonable costs.
However, given the low gearing at present, the Company believes it would be able to raise the required funds at competitive rates. The Company manages
liquidity risk through tie-up of short term facilities from banks which could be used in case of requirement.
D. Internal Control systems and their adequacy
Based on the nature of business and size of operations, the Company?s internal control system has been designed to provide for:
* Accurate recording of transactions with internal checks and prompt reporting.
* Adherence to applicable Accounting Standards and Policies.
* Review of capital investments and long term business plans.
* Periodic review meetings to guide optimum utilization of resources.
* Compliance with applicable statutes, policies, listing requirements and management policies and procedures.
* Effective use of resources and safeguarding of assets.
The internal control system provides for well documented policies / guidelines, authorizations and approval procedures. The Company, through its own Corporate Internal Audit Department, carries out periodic audits at all locations and all functions and brings out any deviation to internal control procedures. The observations arising out of audit are periodically reviewed and compliance ensured. The summary of the Internal Audit observations is submitted to Audit Committee of the Board of Directors. The status of implementation of the recommendations is reviewed by the Committee on a regular basis and concerns, if any, are reported to the Board.
Information security and IPR protection initiatives
While the Company endeavours continuously to align IT investments to business strategies, efforts have simultaneously been made to safeguard the Company's invaluable information assets and intellectual property. As a part of this initiative, the Company implemented, during 2005, BS7799 - 2:2002, the most widely accepted security standard and got the coveted certification, the first among all auto majors in India.
Continuing this journey further, the Company migrated to ISO27001 during 2006, consequent to ISO adopting BS7799, as part of the ISO standard for information security. Subsequently, the scope of the certification was extended to Advanced Engineering activities of the Company during 2007, as a part of Company's strategy to extend the scope to all critical business units, where intellectual property and critical information are either created, handled or stored.
During April 2008, STQC (MIT, Govt. of India) renewed the ISO27001 certificate for a further period of three years, subject to periodical surveillance audits, following an assessment and detailed review of maintenance of the implemented standard, best practices and further improvements over the last three years.
E. Financial Review
During the year under review, growth in profits has been commensurate with growth in revenues. The Company achieved an overall growth in sale revenue by 7.8% over the previous year. Drop in domestic vehicle sales by 1.4% over previous year was adequately compensated by 21% increase in export volumes. The Company improved its nonauto Engine sales by 37%, supported by sale of 'Leypower Gensets', a new line of revenue stream. Parts sales (including supply of kits to Vehicle Factory, Jabalpur) registered 50% growth. The share of non-cyclical revenues (covering revenues from Buses / Chassis for buses, non-auto Engines, Defence, Exports and Spare Parts) improved from 24% to 33% in 2007-08.
Summary of Profit and Loss Account
Rs millions 2007-08 2006-07 Inc/(Dec)%Income
Sales (Net of Excise Duty) 77,291 71,682 7.8
Other Income 740 708 4.5
Total 78,031 72,390 7.8
Material Cost 57,647 54,632 5.5
Employee Expenses 6,162 4,807 28.2
Other Expenses 5,443 5,216 4.4
Depreciation 1,774 1,506 17.8
Financial Expenses 497 53 838.5
Total 71,523 66,214 8.0
Profit Before Extraordinary item 6,508 6,176 5.4
Extraordinary item-VRS Expenses Amortisation (127) (131) (2.6)
Profit Before Tax 6,381 6,045 5.5
Tax Provision - Current 1,014 1,351 (24.9)
- Deferred 604 230 162.7
- Fringe benefit tax 70 51 37.3
Profit After Tax 4,693 4,413 6.3
Basic Earnings Per Share (in Rs.) 3.53 3.38 4.4
Diluted Earnings Per Share (in Rs.) 3.53 3.36 5.1
The Company was able to earn revenue through the following streams of business activities:
i) Vehicles: Income from vehicles was Rs 68,819 mn. 4.1% over the previous year level of Rs 66,092 mn.
ii) Engines: Income from Engines increased to Rs 1,921 mn., 59% growth over the previous year level of Rs 1,210 mn. During the year the Company offered factory built genset engines, which accounted for 17% of total engine volume.
iii) Spare Parts and others: Income from Spare parts including sale of kits to Vehicle Factory, Jabalpur increased to Rs 6,551 mn., a jump of 50% over the previous year level of Rs 4,380 mn.
Other income registered an increase by Rs. 32 mn. mainly due to better realization on sale of investments during the current year.
Material Cost: Steel, the major input material, witnessed a steep increase during the year (62% increase on point to point basis compared to March 2007). The other major input, rubber also witnessed an increase of 10% in commodity prices. However, the Company mostly neutralized these increases through continued efforts in value engineering initiatives and better product mix. The Company also managed to secure from global sources (including from China where it has recently set up an office) components at lower costs to offset the commodity price induced input cost increases. The Company was also able to get the full year benefit of VAT, introduced by Tamil Nadu Government in January 2007. Average pricing action of about 4.5% effected by the Company in a phased manner helped to protect the margins.
Staff costs: The increase is mainly due to full year impact of salary revision made in the previous year and incremental manpower for ongoing activities at Uttarakhand and Product Development initiatives.
Other expenses: These increased by 4.4% (excluding R & D activities), mainly due to the activity levels and inflation. Reduction in rates and taxes is due to full year impact of abolition of Additional Sales tax in Tamil Nadu consequent to introduction of VAT effective January 2007.
Depreciation for the year has increased to Rs 1,774 mn. compared to Rs 1,506 mn. in the previous year due to deployment of resources to augment capacity and incremental provision for impairment of assets by Rs. 28 mn.
Interest cost has gone up due to borrowings to meet the capital expenditure and working capital requirements. The Company is regulating its borrowing in line with capital expenditure requirements. Centralised Treasury Department is active in the money market to manage day-to-day investment of surplus funds and raise short-term funds as required and bring down cost by such borrowings.
Total capital employed by the Company increased by 21% from Rs 27,075 mn. to Rs 32,680 mn., mainly due to investments in facility creation.
Total Shareholders' funds as at March 31, 2008 aggregated Rs 21,267 mn. of which equity capital was Rs 1,330 mn. comprising of 1,330 mn. shares of Re 1 each. Out of the above, 6,468,000 shares were issued during the year by way of conversion of Foreign Currency Convertible Notes.
BALANCE SHEET Rs. millions 2007-08 2006-07 Inc/(Dec)%Sources of Funds
Shareholders' Funds 21,267 18,702 13.7
Loan Funds 8,875 6,404 38.6
Deferred Tax 2,538 1,969 28.9 Liability - Net
Total 32,680 27,075 20.7
Application of Funds
Fixed Assets 20,548 15,445 33.0
Investments 6,099 2,211 175.8
Net Current Assets 6,033 9,419 (35.9)
Total 32,680 27,075 20.7
The Directors have recommended 150% dividend for the year 2008, i.e. Rs.1.50 per share.
Capital expenditure and Investments
During the year, the Company incurred Rs 6,959 mn. towards capital expenditure. This expenditure covers investments related to capacity expansion in the existing plants and in the new plant at Uttarakhand and R & D programmes. The Company also started making investments in Ashley Alteams India Private Limited (Joint Venture Company with Alteams O.Y. Finland) and Automotive Infotronics Private Limited (Joint Venture with Continental AG). These two companies will focus on supplies to meet specific component requirements for fitment in Commercial Vehicles.
In addition the Company made investments in a vehicle manufacturing / assembly plant at Ras Al Khaimah, Design Engineering services business viz., Defiance Testing and Engineering Services Inc. USA and Albonair GmbH, Germanywhich is engaged in the development of fuel emission treatment / control systems.
Net Current Assets (excluding cash / bank balances) as on March 31, 2008 stood at Rs 1,519 mn. compared to the previous year level of Rs 5,069 mn. mainly due to reduction in trade debtor levels. Inventories have gone up to Rs 12,239 mn. as on March 31, 2008 compared to Rs 10,703 mn. as at March 31, 2007. The increase is mainly due to increased activity levels and higher level of finished vehicles and engines. Focussed effort on collections reduced the sundry debtors level to Rs 3,758 mn. from Rs 5,229 mn.
As at March 31, 2008, net debt (net of cash & bank balances) to equity ratio was 0.2. During the year the Company had tied up External Commercial Borrowings (ECB) for USD 270 mn. Against these facilities, the Company drew USD 90 mn. to fund imported capital expenditure/ investments. The balance of USD 180 mn. would be drawn during the ensuing year. FCCNs issued during April 2004 has been converted except for USD 1 mn., representing 1% of the total issue size of USD 100 mn. Assuming conversion of this balance portion, the equity of the Company will increase to Rs 1331.8 mn. The Company manages its liquidity through rigorous weekly monitoring of cash flows and surplus funds are invested, mainly in units of mutual funds and in bank deposits.
The Company's principal sources of liquidity are:
a) Existing cash and cash equivalents
b) Cash generated by operations
c) Unutilised limits with banks
d) Unutilised limits out of term funding limits tied up with financial institutions and Banks.
Fitch has awarded ratings at 'AA (IND) / stable' for the Company's long term borrowings. ICRA has assigned the rating LAA (L double A) for long-term loans and also assigned special rating of A1+ (A one plus) for short-term loans. CRISIL has given the ratings for long-term borrowings at 'AA / negative'. On Commercial Paper programme (short term borrowing), CRISIL maintained the earlier rating of P1+. The Company believes that it has sufficient liquidity to meet its working capital requirements and other anticipated cash outflows.
Results of operation
The Company generated profit from operations after tax of Rs 6,956 mn. After meeting working capital requirements and extraordinary item of payments for Voluntary Retirement Scheme of Rs 48 mn., the Company earned net cash inflow of Rs 10,657 mn. from its operations.
Cash flow from financing activities significantly improved mainly due to payment of dividend for 2006-07 in March-07 itself. This enabled the Company utilise internal generation for meeting capital expenditure (including capital advance) requirements and minimise the borrowings during 2007-08.
Profit before tax and extra-ordinary items improved by 4.5% to Rs 6,508 mn. During the year, the Company charged Rs 127 mn. towards amortisation of VRS expenses. After providing for taxes at Rs 1,688 mn. (including deferred tax and fringe benefit tax), profit after tax for the current year improved by 6.3 % to Rs.4,693 mn.
F. The Years ahead
The Company has set itself the task of consolidating and enhancing its position in the Indian commercial vehicle market, both in terms of volumes as well as in customer satisfaction, in the medium term. The Company is executing various initiatives in terms of process and product improvements to achieve this goal.
The Company aspires to widen its footprint in the global commercial vehicle industry through organic and inorganic growth and is examining opportunities towards this end.
Cash Flow Statement Rs. millions 2007-08 2006-07
Profit from operations after tax 6,956 4,958
Dec. in Net Working Capital 3,749 372
Net Cash Flow from operating activities (before extraordinary item) 10,705 5,330
Payments under Voluntary Retirement Scheme (48) (330)
Net Cash flow from operating activities 10,657 5,000
Payment for Assets acquisition-net (6,095) (6,704)
Other cash flow from Investing activities-net (2,002) (519)
Cash flow from Financing activities 3,645 (2,908)
Net Cash Inflow/(Outflow) 6,205 (5,131)
Development programmes for the next generation products and aggregates are currently underway. These include the 'Future Vehicle Development Programme', the 'New Engine Platform' development programme among others. The successful culmination of these programmes should give the Company significant competitive advantages.
In order to compensate for the cyclic nature of the domestic commercial vehicle industry, the Company has been focussing on increasing its presence in allied businesses like non-auto engine, Defence, Exports and Parts so as to achieve a significant portion of its revenues from such non-cyclical businesses.
KOTAK MAHINDRA BANK LIMITED
ANNUAL REPORT 2007-2008
To The Members ofKOTAK MAHINDRA BANK LIMITED
The Directors present their Twenty Third Annual Report together with the audited accounts of your Bank for the year ended 31st March 2008.
(A) Kotak Mahindra Bank Limited - Consolidated financial highlights:
31st March 2008 31st March 2007 Rs. crore Rs. crore
Total income 7,678.47 4,352.30Total expenditure, excluding provisions and contingencies 5,907.53 3,421.11Operating Profit 1,770.94 931.19Provisions and contingencies,excluding provision for tax 363.02 152.50Profit before tax 1,407.92 778.69Provision for taxes 449.19 254.21Profit after tax 958.73 524.48Less: Share of minorityinterest (18.69) 0.66Add: Share in profit ofAssociates 13.81 14.42Consolidated profit for theGroup 991.23 538.24Earnings per Equity ShareBasic (Rs.) 29.62 16.60Diluted (Rs.) 29.18 16.47
(B) Kotak Mahindra Bank Limited - Standalone financial highlights:
31st March 2008 31st March 2007 Rs. crore Rs. crore
Total Income 2,998.83 1,637.76Operating Profit 669.89 325.8Total expenditure, excludingprovisions and contingencies 2,328.94 1,311.94Provisions and contingencies,excluding tax provisions 272.11 122.57Profit before tax 397.78 203.25Provision for taxes 103.85 61.88Profit after tax 293.93 141.37Add: Surplus broughtforward from the previous year 354.18 286.36Add: Transfer from KotakMahindra CapitalCompany Limited on demerger - 216.76Amount available for appropriation 648.12 644.49
Transfer from Kotak MahindraCapital Company Limited ondemerger appropriated to General Reserve - 216.76Statutory Reserve underSection 17 of the Banking Regulation Act, 1949 73.50 35.50General Reserve 14.70 7.25Transfer to Capital Reserve 1.48 4.05Proposed Dividend 25.87 22.86Corporate Dividend Tax 4.40 3.89Surplus carried to Balance Sheet 528.17 354.18
Keeping in mind the overall performance and the outlook for your Bank, the Directors recommend a dividend of 7.5% (previous year 7%), entailing a payout of Rs. 25.87 crore (previous year Rs. 22.86 crore). The dividend would be paid to all the shareholders, whose names appear on the Register of Members/Beneficial Holders list on the Book Closure date.
Tier - I Capital
During the year, your Bank raised Rs. 1,615 crore through issue of 1,70,00,000 equity shares to Qualified Institutional Buyers (QIBs) at an issue price of Rs. 950/- per share.
Also, during the year, your Bank has allotted 15,17,134 shares arising out of the exercise of Employees Stock Options granted to the employees, employees of your subsidiaries and Executive Directors of your Bank.
Tier - II Capital
During the year your Bank has issued Unsecured, Redeemable, Non-Convertible Subordinated Debt Bonds in the form of Promissory Notes/Debentures through private placement for an amount aggregating to Rs. 35.80 crore to augment the Tier-II capital to meet the growth in assets of your Bank and to enhance overall Capital Adequacy Ratio. These Bonds were issued in demat and were listed on the Wholesale Debt Market segment of the National Stock Exchange of India Limited. Your Bank has appointed IDBI Trusteeship Services Limited as the Trustees for these Bonds, as aforesaid. Outstanding Unsecured, Redeemable Non- Convertible, Subordinated Debt Bonds as at 31st March 2008 stood at Rs. 465.70 crore.
Hybrid debt capital instruments: Upper Tier - II Capital
During the year your Bank has issued and allotted Unsecured, Non Convertible, Redeemable Debt Capital Instruments through private placement for an amount aggregating to Rs. 136 crore to augment the Upper Tier-II capital to meet the growth in assets of your Bank and to enhance overall Capital Adequacy Ratio. These Bonds were listed on the Wholesale Debt Market segment of the National Stock Exchange of India Limited. Your Bank has appointed IDBI Trusteeship Services Limited as the Trustees for these Bonds, as aforesaid. Outstanding Unsecured, Non-Convertible, Redeemable Debt Capital Instruments Upper Tier II as at 31st March 2008 stood at Rs. 136 crore.
During the year your Bank has not issued any Foreign Currency denominated Subordinated Debt Bonds or Debt Capital Instruments Upper Tier-II to augment the Tier-II capital of the bank.
The Branch Banking Business completed its fifth year of operations. The network expansion momentum has significantly increased in the current year with addition of 73 new full fledged branches & 179 new ATMs, taking the network size to 178 branches & 314 ATMs in 107 locations. The momentum of expansion will continue with addition of 80 -100 branches in the next year. The Branches and ATMs have helped expand our reach and increase our brand presence in the minds of customers. The pace of acquisition of customers and deposits from the branch network continued to be very satisfactory and in line with the best in the industry. Currently, the network acquires about 40000 deposit accounts every month & has more or less doubled the account base from 3,50,000 last year to around 7,00,000 this year. The penetration into Corporate Salary segment of Customers has given a significant impetus to the customer acquisition programme.
Your Bank added new products & services like Gold debit card, Smart fee (a fee solution for Educational Institutions), GPRS based mobile banking, Bill presentment and payment facility, online term deposits etc. to meet the needs of the customers. Several new initiatives were taken during the year to improve the operations and service levels to customers, through mystery shopping, customer feedback surveys and dedicated Control Unit. The customer response to our service levels continues to be heartening. Your Bank has won several awards for high quality implementation of various technology aspects of the business which help your Bank in delivering its proposition to customers in a manner most secure & most desirable to them, yet keeping it cost efficient for your Bank.
The distribution of third party products remains strong from the Branch Network, contributing to a good mix of Fee Income to Net Interest Income. Overall the progress of the business gives us the confidence to invest in further network expansion.
The year saw a continued increase in coverage of top corporate and mid market corporate clients and your bank widened and deepened its franchise in these segments. The year continued to see a surge in credit demand from the corporate and mid market business segments both for working capital and term facilities. Your Bank was able to tap this opportunity by offering a variety of products from plain vanilla debt issuance to structured products and loan syndication.
The year also saw an increase in demand for trade finance both domestic and international and your Bank was able to tap this opportunity through structured product offerings to customers. Volumes saw a significant increase.
Your Bank increased its thrust in offering customized solutions on foreign exchange, and cash management services across the spectrum of customers. Your Bank was also able to provide products and services to segments of financial institutions group through customized credit and transaction banking offerings. Your Bank continued its presence as a 'collection banker' in a number of the Initial Public Offers and New Fund Offers.
Disbursements in the Commercial Vehicles and Infrastructure Finance divisions grew in line with the industry trends. Whereas the commercial vehicle sector showed a marked tapering down of growth rates, the construction equipment sector continued its robust growth. Keeping in view the opportunities in both the sectors, in addition to traditional asset funding, the businesses focused on growing its book on the transaction banking and non fund based products. The thrust given on cross sell of other banking products also got further momentum during the year. The businesses will continue to give focus on building customer value, going forward. A risk control unit was established during the year to supplement its robust risk management practices.
The Agri Business has further consolidated comprising short term and long term loans, working capital facilities to farmers and other agri intermediaries. Funding was extended for improved agriculture projects like horticulture, poultry, floriculture, bee keeping and other allied activities. Working capital facilities were extended to distinctive agri sectors like oils, cotton, agro processors, rice millers and sugar. The division also has developed the portfolio & expertise in funding against commodities. The agri division is becoming the predominant vehicle for identifying & servicing the financial requirements for agriculture & other rural segments.
The Home Finance business saw the continued growth rate it has witnessed since inception as a result of the growth in the real estate market. Similarly the Personal loan business grew significantly and your Bank improved its presence across newer geographies.
Last year several auctions of the NPA portfolios by banks/NBFCs and institutions failed due to pricing mismatch between the buyers and sellers. Your bank made an entry in purchasing retail assets by acquiring a portfolio, as there is good opportunity in this space, moving forward. Your bank resolved several accounts resulting in good recoveries and continued to invest in attractive single asset transactions with good turnaround prospects.
Your Bank has an active proprietary desk trading in all products such as Fixed Income, Money Markets, Derivatives, Foreign Exchange and Bullion. The treasury plays an important role in balance sheet management and implementation of Funds Transfer Price between various business units. In the area of Debt Capital Markets (DCM) the Bank offered the following products: Securitisation, Loan and Bond syndication, mezzanine financing, promoter funding and acquisition financing. The Bank is one of the active players in the Securitisation market particularly in Corporate Loan securitization.
In respect of forex derivatives transactions with corporate customers of the Bank, as on May 8, 2008 customers of the Bank had negative MTM exposures aggregating Rs. 612 crore. As on March 31, 2008, Bank carries a provision of Rs. 86 crore towards stressed cases.
After many months of market research and product development, your bank launched the Credit Cards business on April 15th 2008. Kotak Cards has taken a fresh approach to card design, and has introduced India's 1st vertical card. Kotak Cards have been built on 3 core tenets - Relevant benefits that reflect what customers do most, Simplified credit that is easy to use and Transparent communication of charges. The Credit Cards are available in 4 variants to cater to the specific needs of distinct customer segments. With the launch of its credit cards, your Bank now offers a complete range of retail financial services.
As at the end of the year, your Bank's capital adequacy was 18.65% and the Tier 1 capital adequacy ratio was 14.46% and the net NPAs were at 0.38% of net advances excluding stressed assets portfolio. The Net NPAs of the Bank including stressed assets portfolio were at 1.78%.
Your Bank along with its subsidiaries offers complete financial solutions to its customers. The key business segments where the subsidiaries operate include investment banking, stock broking, car finance, asset management and life insurance.
Kotak Mahindra Capital Company Limited and Kotak Securities Limited posted a good financial performance on the back of strong capital markets and the robust overall economic growth. The life insurance subsidiary, Kotak Mahindra Old Mutual Life Insurance Limited continued its growth momentum in premium income. The international subsidiaries have gained impetus and have now become gainful contributors to the profits of the Group. Kotak Mahindra Asset Management Company Limited, Kotak Mahindra Prime Limited and the other subsidiaries also posted growth in profits and had a good year.
The various activities of the subsidiaries are outlined in the Management Discussion and Analysis section appended to this Report.
In the year 2006-07 a petition was filed before the Hon'ble High Court of Judicature at Bombay in respect of a Scheme of Arrangement between Kotak Mahindra Securities Limited (KMSL), Kotak Mahindra Capital Company Limited (KMCC) for demerger of undertaking comprising of the trading and clearing operations and strategic investments of KMSL to KMCC. Upon receipt of all necessary approvals, the demerger was completed on 3rd September, 2007 to take effect from 31st March, 2007.
During the year, the name of KMSL was changed to Kotak Investment Advisors Limited (KIAL). With effect from 1st October, 2007, the alternate asset management business i.e. management of private equity and realty funds of Kotak Mahindra Group was assigned to KIAL.
In terms of the approval granted by the Central Government vide their letter dated 14th January 2008 under Section 212(8) of the Companies Act, 1956, abridged Annual Report which consists of the financial statements of your Bank on standalone basis as well as consolidated financial statements of the group for the year ended 31st March 2008, have been sent to all the members of the Bank. It does not contain Annual Reports of the Bank's subsidiary companies. The Bank will make available full Annual Report (including the Annual Reports of all subsidiaries) upon request by any member of the Bank. These Annual Reports will be available on Bank's website and will also be available for inspection by any member at the Registered Office of the Bank.
EMPLOYEE STOCK OPTION SCHEME
The stock options granted to the employees currently operate under three schemes, namely Kotak Mahindra Equity Option Plan 2002 - 2003 ('Plan 2002-03'), Kotak Mahindra Equity Option Scheme 2005 ('Scheme 2005') and Kotak Mahindra Equity Option Scheme 2007 ('Scheme 2007'). The disclosures below are in respect of the year ended 31st March 2008.
Options granted during the year Plan 2002 - 03 Nil Scheme 2005 Nil Scheme 2007 50,08,050 options-Series 1 to 11.
Options Vested Plan 2002-03 9,41,325 options. Scheme 2005 9,28,970 options.
Options exercised Plan 2002-03 8,23,904 options. Scheme 2005 6,93,230 options.
Total number of shares Plan 2002-03arising as a result of 8,23,904 equity shares of exercise of options Rs. 10/- each. Scheme 2005 6,93,230 equity shares of Rs. 10/- each.
Options lapsed Plan 2002-03 1,03,318 options. Scheme 2005 3,56,380 options. Scheme 2007 2,59,500 options.Variation of terms of No variations made in the terms options of the options granted except in respect of Scheme 2002-03 and Scheme 2005 with respect to recovery from the relevant eligible employees, the Fringe Benefit Tax on exercise of options as permitted by regulations.
Money realized by Exercise amount received:exercise of options Plan 2002-03 Rs. 6,59,12,320/- Scheme 2005 Rs. 6,68,42,500/-
Total number of options Plan 2002-03in force Outstanding options not yet vested: 8,12,812 options. Scheme 2005 Outstanding options not yet vested: 42,74,990 options. Scheme 2007 Outstanding options not yet vested: 47,48,550 options.
Details of options Plan 2002-03 granted during the Nil year to Scheme 2005 (i) Senior management Nil personnel Scheme 2007 Name of Senior No. of options Management granted Personnel Mr. C. Jayaram 97,000 Mr. Dipak Gupta 1,00,000
(ii) Any other employee Plan 2002-03 who receives a grant Nil in any one year of options amounting Scheme 2005 to 5% or more of Nil options granted during that year Scheme 2007 Nil
(iii) Identified Plan 2002-03 employees who Nil were granted option, during any Scheme 2005 one year, equal Nil to or exceeding 1% of the issued Scheme 2007 capital (excluding Nil outstandingwarrants andconversions) of thecompany at the timeof grant
Diluted Earnings Per * The diluted Earnings Per Share (EPS) pursuant Share (EPS) pursuant to to issue of shares on issue of shares on exerciseexercise of options of options calculated in calculated in accordance accordance with AS20 is with AS20 Earnings Per 29.18 (Consolidated) 8.65 Share (standalone).
Where the company has * Had the Bank (Consolidated) calculated the employee followed the fair value methodcompensation cost for accounting the stock using the intrinsic value option compensation expense of stock options, the would have been higher by difference between the Rs. 291,509,467, with employee compensation consequent lower cost so computed Consolidated profits. and the employee On account of the same compensation cost the diluted EPS of the that shall have been Bank (Consolidated) recognized if it had would have been less by used the fair value of Rs. 28.32 per share. the options, shall bedisclosed. The impactof this difference onprofits and on EPS ofthe company shall alsobe disclosed.
Weighted - average * The weighted average priceexercise prices and of the stock options weighted - average fair exercised is Rs. 87.50 and values of options shall the weighted average fair be disclosed separately value is Rs. 193.48. for options whoseexercise price eitherequals or exceeds oris less than the marketprice of the stock.
* Note: Above figures are derived by considering the Kotak group as awhole (Consolidated).
A description of the A. Stock price method and significant assumptions used It is the closing market priceduring the year to on the National Stock Exchangeestimate the fair values of India Limited (NSE) on the of options, including the date of the respective grant. following weighted - average information: B. Volatility Volatility is a measure of the amount by which a price has fluctuated or is expected to fluctuate during a period. The measure of volatility used in the Black-Scholes option-pricing model is the annualized standard deviation of the continuously compounde rates of return on the stock over a period of time. Accordingly, daily volatility of the Bank's stock price on the NSE for the period corresponding to the respecti expected live of the differented vests, prior to the grant date has been considered. C. Risk free interest rate The risk-free interest rate being considered for the calculation is the interest rate applicable for maturity equal to the expected life of the options based on the zero-coupon yield curve for Government Securities as on the date of the respective grant. D. Time to Maturity/Expected Life of options The minimum life of a stock is the vesting period and the maximum life is vesting period plus the exercise period. The Expected life of the options has been calculated as the average of the two extremes - the minimum life and the maximum life. Since each vest has been considered as a separate grant, the expected life has been calculated for each vest separately. E. Dividend yield The dividend yield for each year has been derived by dividing the dividend per share by the average market price per share.
Pursuant to Clause 49 of the Listing Agreement with the Stock Exchanges, a separate section entitled Corporate Governance' has been included in this Annual Report.
Mr. Shivaji Dam retires at the Twenty Third Annual General Meeting and is eligible for re-appointment.
The Reserve Bank of India ('RBI'), vide its letter no. DBOD No. 17/08.140.001/2006-07 dated July 14, 2006 had approved the continuation of Mr. K. M. Gherda as a Director till he retires by rotation. Mr. Gherda retires by rotation at this Annual General Meeting and accordingly the term of
Mr. Gherda expires at this Meeting. Mr. Asim Ghosh was appointed as an Additional Director of the Bank with effect from 9th May 2008 and, pursuant to the proviso to Section 260 of the Companies Act, 1956, holds office as a Director up to the date of this Annual General Meeting but is eligible to be appointed as a Director. In terms of Section 257 of the Companies Act, 1956 the Bank has received notice in writing from the member along with a requisite deposit of Rs. 500/- proposing the candidature of Mr. Asim Ghosh for his appointment as a Director.
Mr. Asim Ghosh is an MBA from Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania and a B.Tech from IIT Delhi. Mr. Ghosh commenced his career in consumer goods marketing with Procter & Gamble in the U.S. and Canada, and worked subsequently with Rothmans International as a Board member of one of Canada's major breweries. He moved to Asia in 1989 as CEO of the Frito Lay (Pepsi Foods) start up in India. Thereafter, he was in executive positions with Hutchison in Hong Kong and India for the past 16 years, and is currently CEO of Vodafone Essar Limited since 1998.
The Board of Directors of the Bank, at its meeting held on 9th May 2008, has re-appointed Mr. Uday Kotak as the Executive Vice-Chairman and Managing Director for a period up to 21st March 2012, subject to the approval of the Members and of the Reserve Bank of India. Mr. Dipak Gupta and Mr. C. Jayaram have been appointed as Executive Directors for a further period up to 31st December 2011, subject to the approval of the shareholders and of the Reserve Bank of India. The approval of the shareholders in this regard is being sought at the ensuing Annual General Meeting of the Bank.
Messrs S. R. Batliboi & Co., Chartered Accountants, auditors of your Bank, retire on the conclusion of Twenty Third Annual General Meeting and are eligible for reappointment. You are requested to appoint auditors for the current financial year and to fix their remuneration.
The Companies (Disclosure of Particulars in the Report of Board of Directors) Rules, 1998, are not applicable to your Bank.
There was a significant increase in your Bank's staffing particularly in the Retail Banking business. The employee strength of your Bank along with its subsidiaries as of 31st March 2008 was around 20,000, as compared to 10,800 employees a year ago.
The Bank standalone had around 9,000 employees as of 31st March 2008 (previous year around 5,400). 177 employees employed throughout the year and 82 employees employed for part of the year were in receipt of remuneration of Rs. 24 lacs or more per annum.
Your Bank has in place policies relating to employee service conditions, welfare and training which are reviewed on an ongoing basis by your Bank's Management Committee.
Your Bank continues to focus on training its employees on a continuing basis by deputation to reputed training institutions by holding workshops on various areas including Regulatory Compliance, Risk Management, Customer Care and Communication, Trade Finance, Foreign Exchange Rules and Treasury.
In accordance with the provisions of Section 217(2A) of the Companies Act, 1956 and the rules framed thereunder, the names and other particulars of employees are set out in the annexure to the Directors' Report. In terms of the provisions of Section 219 (1)(b)(iv) of the Companies Act, 1956, the Directors' Report is being sent to all the shareholders of the Bank excluding the aforesaid annexure. The annexure is available for inspection at the Registered Office of the Bank. Any shareholder interested in obtaining a copy of the said annexure may write to the Company Secretary at the Registered Office of the Bank.
DIRECTORS' RESPONSIBILITY STATEMENT
The Directors, based on the representations received from the operational management, confirm in pursuance of Section 217 (2AA) of the Companies Act, 1956, that:
(i) your Bank has, in the preparation of the annual accounts for the year ended 31st March 2008, followed the applicable accounting standards along with proper explanations relating to material departures, if any;
(ii) they have selected such accounting policies and applied them consistently and made judgements and estimates that are reasonable and prudent so as to give a true and fair view of the state of affairs of the Bank as at 31st March 2008 and of the profit of your Bank for the financial year ended 31st March 2008;
(iii) they have taken proper and sufficient care to the best of their knowledge and ability, for the maintenance of adequate accounting records in accordance with the provisions of the Act for safeguarding the assets of the Bank and for preventing and detecting fraud and other irregularities; and
(iv) the annual accounts have been prepared on a going concern basis.
Your Directors would like to place on record their gratitude for the valuable guidance and support received from the Reserve Bank of India, Securities and Exchange Board of India, Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority and other Government and Regulatory agencies. Your Directors acknowledge the support of the shareholders and also wish to place on record their appreciation of employees for their commendable efforts, teamwork and professionalism.
For and on behalf of the Board of Directors
Dr. Shankar AcharyaMumbai, 9th May 2008. Chairman
MANAGEMENT DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
MACRO-ECONOMIC AND INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENTS:
India continued to grow at a rapid pace in 2007-08, albeit slightly slower than in the previous financial year. The advance estimates from the Central Statistical Organization placed the rise in GDP for 2007-08 at 8.7%, compared to a rise of 9.6% in 2006-07. Agriculture and allied activities clocked a growth of 2.6% in 2007-08 (3.8% in the last year) while industry GDP slowed to 8.6% in 2007-08 (10.6% in 2006-07). Services sector grew by 10.6% in 2007-08 as against 11.2% a year ago.
The Index of Industrial Production (IIP) rose by 8.7% in April-February 2007-08 as against 11.2% a year ago. The growth in output of the manufacturing sector was at 9.1% in the first 11 months of FY08, slower than 12.2% recorded in the same period last year. The industry groups that registered slower growth in 2007-08 were textiles, paper and products, non-metallic mineral products and transport equipments and parts. On the other hand, while mining grew by 5.1% (5.0% last year), electricity generation rose by 6.6% (7.2% last year).
In terms of the use-based classification of industries, capital goods production continued to expand at a rapid pace, rising 17.5% in April-February 2007-08 on top of a rise of 18.3% a year ago. The basic, intermediate and consumer non-durable goods segments recorded lower growths of 7.4%, 9.2% and 8.9%, respectively, as against 10.1%, 11.7% and 9.5% a year ago. On the other hand, the production of consumer durables declined by 1% compared to a rise of 9.7% a year ago, mostly a result of the monetary policy tightening and the consequent hardening of interest rates during 2007-08.
The above indicates that aggregate demand conditions were dominated by investment spending in 2007-08. Real private final consumption expenditure rose by 6.8% compared to 7.1% in the previous year while its share in GDP in nominal terms declined from 55.5% to 55.8% at current market prices. On the other hand, real gross fixed capital formation increased by 15.7% compared to 15.1% in the previous year with the corresponding share in GDP in nominal terms increasing from 32.5% in 2006-07 to 34.6% in 2007-08.
The overall moderation in real sector activity was also reflected in the monetary and banking developments of 2007-08. Non-food credit growth moderated to 22.3%, much lower than 28.5% in the previous year. The incremental non-food credit-deposit ratio for the banking system dropped to 72.3% in 2007-08 from 83.2% in 2006-07, 109.3% in 2005-06 and 130% in 2004-05. Data on sectoral deployment of bank credit available till February 2008 indicates a gradual deceleration in housing and real estate loans to 12.0% (25.8% last year) and 26.7% (79% last year) respectively. On the other hand, there was a sizeable increase in loans to areas such as infrastructure, food processing and engineering.
Reserve money increased by 30.9%, much higher than 23.7% in the previous year. Among the sources of reserve money, the Reserve Bank's foreign currency assets (adjusted for revaluation) increased sharply by Rs. 3,70,550 crore as compared with the increase of Rs. 1,64,601 crore in the previous year. RBI used a combination of LAF, Market Stabilization Scheme and CRR increases (raised by 150 bps in 2007-08) to moderate the huge surge in rupee liquidity resulting out of dollar buying by the RBI to prevent a significant appreciation in the Indian Rupee against the USD. Consequent to the use of instruments to moderate rupee liquidity, the growth in the Money Supply (M3) was restricted to 20.7% in 2007-08 as against 21.5% rise in 2006-07.
Inflation flared near to the close of FY08 to end the year at 7.4% compared to 5.9% at end-March 2007. This was despite WPI inflation declining from 6.4% in the beginning of FY08 to a low of 3.1% in mid-October 2007. The average WPI inflation for 2007-08 was at 4.7% compared to the average of 5.4% in 2006-07. WPI inflation surged from around mid-February 2008 due to a sharp increase in the prices of food articles and non-food articles such as cotton and oilseeds on the primary side. On the manufactured articles side, a sharp rise in prices was evident in edible oils, oil cakes, basic metals, alloys and metal products and heavy inorganic chemicals. Despite the average price of the Indian basket of international crude oil increasing by 27.6% in 2007-08, domestic retail prices of petrol and diesel were revised up only once in 2007-08 in February 2008. Indian inflation was thus anyways repressed to a large extent by administrative measures. Ex-fuel inflation (a measure for core inflation) ended 2007-08 at 7.6% compared to 7.4% a year ago.
Despite a moderation in growth, the Indian economy's performance was commendable given the sharply lower growth in the rest of the world (the US economy is already thought to be exhibiting recessionary trends) and also against the backdrop of the global financial markets witnessing turbulent conditions. The genesis of the crisis in the global financial markets was the sharp rise in defaults on US sub-prime mortgages as US housing prices started to correct sharply lower. This deepened over the course of 2007-08 and spilled over to other asset categories. On the other hand, confidence between players in the financial markets waned and the uncertainties of the situation led to a seizing of the credit markets, leading to a very sharp increase in the short-term money market rates. In August 2007, central banks in US and other affected economies injected liquidity in various ways to stabilize the inter-bank market. Important among these measures were an enhancement in the type of securities against which the banks could borrow, including the mortgage back securities.
The significant volatility of the global financial markets, unlike previous occasions, failed to translate in a too-severe impact on the financial markets in the Emerging Market Economies (EME). Between end-October 2007 and January 23 2008, the MSCI developed markets index declined by 17% while the equity markets in the EMEs recorded gains in most part of 2007-08 though with sharp intermittent corrections. However, some pronounced weakness in the EME equity markets was witnessed from January 2008 as risk aversion took over and earning expectations reduced. Overall in end-March 2007 to end-March 2008, the MSCI emerging market index rose by 18.9% but the MSCI developed markets index fell by 5.1%.
The Indian equity market witnessed large swings in 2007-08 with the BSE Sensex increasing by 19.7% to 15,644 at end-March 2008 but with the intra-year peak at 20,873. Sound macroeconomic fundamentals, increase in corporate profitability and foreign fund inflows through the FIIs could be some of the reasons for the general positive sentiments that prevailed in the Indian equity markets.
On the other hand, 2007-08 saw alternating ease and tightness in rupee liquidity conditions. To a large extent these fluctuations were conditioned by policy changes by the monetary authority. On a net basis, average daily LAF repo injections stood at Rs. 4,568 crore in Q1, 2007-08 and increased to Rs. 13,472 crore in Q2 but dropped significantly to Rs. 7,820 crore in Q3 and further to Rs. 2,116 crore in the last quarter. The above alternating rupee liquidity conditions also implied that the overnight money market rates swung between the lower and the upper end of the LAF corridor. The weighted average call market rates declined from 8.33% in April 2007 to 0.73% in July 2007 on account of a ceiling of Rs. 3,000 crore placed on daily Reverse Repo from March 5, 2007. However, once this ceiling was removed, the overnight money market rate moved up in August but broadly stayed within the LAF corridor till December 2007. Liquidity conditions tightened in the 4th quarter and overnight money market rates moved above the Repo Rate in the last fortnight of February and in March 2008. The CBLO rates and the market repo rates moved in tandem with the overnight money market rates.
The interest rates offered by the PSU banks on deposits for greater than 1 year tenor moved from the range of 7.25-9.50% in March 2007 to 8.00-9.25% in March 2008, while deposit rates for shorter term deposits of upto 1 year maturity moved lower from 2.75-8.75% to 2.75-8.50% in the same period. Private Sector banks increased interest rates for long-term deposits of > 1 year maturity from 6.75-9.75% to 7.25-9.75% in the above period. On the lending side, the benchmark PLR of PSU banks increased by 75 bps from a range of 12.25-12.75% to 12.25-13.50% in 2007-08. The private sector banks increased their BPLR from a range of 12.00-16.50% to 13.00-16.50% in the same period. The range of BPLRs for foreign banks, however, remained unchanged at 10.00-15.50%. The median lending rates for term loans (at which maximum business is contracted) in respect of PSU banks moved from a range of 9.13-12.50% in March 2007 to 10.00-13.00% by March 2008.
In the G-Sec market, primary market yields of 91-day, 182-day and 364-day T-bills softened in 2007-08, declining by 63-84 bps to 7.23%, 7.36% and 7.35% respectively by end-March 2008. In the secondary market, G-Sec yield with 1-year residual maturity declined from 7.55% at end-March 2007 to 7.49% in March 2008. The yield on G-Sec with 10-year residual maturity declined marginally from 7.97% in March 2007 to 7.93% in March 2008. Consequently, the yield spread between 10-year and 1-year G-sec increased from 42 bps at end-March 2007 to 44 bps at end-March 2008.
The positive development on the external front included a sharp increase in the net capital inflows through Foreign Direct Investments, FII flows to equity markets, short-term credit as also through External Commercial Borrowings. The inflows on the capital account side were more than enough to accommodate a significant rise in the trade deficit for 2007-08 to USD 80 billion compared to around USD 59 billion in 2006-07, thereby leading to a total accretion to foreign currency reserves of the RBI at around USD 110 billion (including valuation changes) for 2007-08.
The Indian foreign exchange market witnessed generally orderly conditions in 2007-08 with the exchange rate exhibiting two-way movements. The exchange rate of the Rupee against the USD was at Rs. 43.59 at end-March 2007 and appreciated by 5.6% to Rs. 41.29 at end-April 2007 and further to Rs. 39.27 by January 8, 2008. In the subsequent period the exchange rate depreciated, easing to Rs. 39.97 per USD by end-March 2008. The Rupee-Euro exchange rate depreciated from Rs. 58.14 at end-March 2007 to Rs. 63.09 by end-March 2008. Overall, during 2007-08, the Rupee appreciated by 9.1% against the USD and by 7.5% against Pound Sterling but depreciated by 7.7% against the Japanese Yen and by 7.8% against the Euro.
Source: 'Macroeconomic and Monetary Developments in 2007-08' published by RBI on April 29, 2008
CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE
The Bank along with its subsidiaries continues to grow and this year saw the Bank and the subsidiaries progressing well in terms of reach, customer acquisition, addition of employees and improving its market position in the various new businesses. The Group continues to invest significantly in building two of its key businesses - branch banking and retail liabilities, and life insurance. As on March 31, 2008, the Group employed around 20,000 people (10,800 people as on March 31, 2007) in its various businesses and has a distribution network of branches, franchisees, representative offices and satellite offices across 370 cities and towns in India and offices in New York, London, San Francisco, Dubai, Mauritius and Singapore. The Group services around 4.4 million customer accounts.
During the year Kotak Mahindra Bank was in the Top 5 for Corporate Governance amongst companies by technical criteria in the IR Global Rankings 2008 for the Asia Pacific / Africa region and Kotak's Investor Relation website was adjudged the most voted company in Asia Pacific / Africa by IR Global Rankings 2008 in five categories: Corporate Governance Practices, Financial Disclosure Procedures, IR Team, IR Program and IR Website.
Kotak Mahindra Bank completed 5 years as a scheduled commercial bank in 2007-08. The Bank opened its 150th branch in January 2008. As on March 31, 2008, the Bank has built a network of 178 full fledged branches spread across 109 cities and towns and had 313 ATMs. The Bank proposes to open another 100 branches in the next year.
Kotak Mahindra Capital Company and Kotak Securities continued to report good financial performance on the back of strong capital markets and the robust overall economic growth.
The life insurance subsidiary, Kotak Mahindra Old Mutual Life Insurance continued its growth momentum but posted an accounting loss.
Assets under management (AUM) as on March 31, 2008 was over Rs. 36,500 crore comprising assets managed and advised by the Group. Of the above AUM, equity assets managed / advised by the Group as on March 31, 2008 were around Rs. 23,970 crore. AUM of Kotak Mahindra Mutual Fund (Kotak Mutual) was over Rs. 16,100 crore as on March 31, 2008.
The stressed assets portfolio acquired from other banks/ NBFCs was Rs. 677 crore with principal outstanding of over Rs. 4,100 crore as on March 31, 2008.
In October 2007, the Bank raised Rs. 1,615 crore (approximately USD 410 million) by allotting 1,70,00,000 equity shares through a Qualified Institutional Placement (QIP). The QIP issue was priced at Rs. 950 per equity share.
The consolidated financial performance of the Bank for the year ended March 31, 2008 including key ratios is summarized below:
Income and Profit 2007-08 2006-07 Growth %
Total income * 7,549.39 4,293.95 76%
Operating profit 1,770.94 931.19 90%
Consolidated Profitafter tax (PAT) 991.23 538.24 84%
* Brokerage income is considered net of sub-brokerage
Rs. croreKey Financial Indicators 2007-08 2006-07Consolidated
Net worth after minority interest(Rs. crore) 5,823.91 3,233.02
Earnings per share (diluted) (Rs.) 29.18 16.47
Book value per share (Rs.) 168.97 99.12
Net Interest Margins (NIMs) % 5.6% 5.2%
Return on Average Net Worth %(Rs.) 22.3% 19.6%
Net NPA % excluding stressed assetsportfolio 0.33% 0.17%
Consolidated capital adequacy ratio (%) 20.2% 15.6%
Consolidated profit after tax (after minority interest and share of profit in associates) was up 84% to Rs. 991.23 crore for 2007-08 from Rs. 538.24 crore in 2006-07 on account of strong growth shown by Bank, car finance business, investment banking and securities broking,
For 2007-08 the consolidated earnings per share was Rs. 29.18 (Rs. 16.47 for 2006-07). The consolidated book value per share was Rs. 168.97 as on March 31, 2008 (Rs. 99.12 as on March 31, 2007).
The consolidated total income was Rs. 7,549.39 crore up 76% during 2007-08. Other income grew 69% from Rs. 2,311.92 crore in 2006-07 to Rs. 3,901.10 crore in 2007-08. Consolidated 'other income' had three main components: Commission, fees, exchange & brokerage, profit-on-sale of investments and premium on life insurance business. Commission, fees, exchange & brokerage net of sub brokerage increased by 59% to Rs. 1,676.29 crore in FY08 from Rs. 1,052.77 crore in FY07, with key growth drivers being fee income from the stock broking business, asset management/ advisory fees and investment banking. Premium income from life insurance business grew by over 75% to Rs. 1,661.99 crore reflecting significant momentum in the business.
Operating expenses other than policy holders reserves increased from Rs. 1,803.75 crore in 2006-07 to Rs. 2,929.22 crore in 2007-08, driven primarily by an increase in employee costs by 74% from Rs. 688.08 crore to Rs. 1,197.89 crore, expenses pertaining to rent taxes & lighting by 83% to Rs. 150.54 crore and the expenses pertaining to advertisement, publicity and promotion by 79% from Rs. 72.22 crore in 2006-07 to Rs. 129.26 crore in 2007-08.
Consolidated advances were up 41% from Rs. 15,573.44 crore as on March 31, 2007 to Rs. 21,984.68 crore as on March 31, 2008. As on March 31, 2008, consolidated net NPAs were 0.33% of net advances (0.17% as on March 31, 2007) excluding stressed assets portfolio. The breakup of the consolidated advances is given below:
Rs. croreAdvances March 31, March 31, Growth % 2008 2007Commercial Vehicles &Construction Equipments 3,628.51 2,578.07 41%Auto Loans 4,735.36 3,610.79 31%Personal Loans 3,112.65 1,976.29 58%Home Loans 2,639.98 1,753.32 51%Corporate Banking 2,386.69 2,378.49 -Agriculture Finance 1,664.25 677.63 146%Stressed Assets Portfolio 549.63 512.30 7%Others 3,267.60 2,086.55 57%Total Advances 21,984.68 15,573.44 41%
BANK AND ITS KEY SUBSIDIARIES: FINANCIAL AND OPERATING PERFORMANCE
The Bank along with its subsidiaries, offers wide range of financial products and services to its customers. The key businesses are commercial banking, investment banking, stock broking, car finance, asset management and life insurance.
Kotak Mahindra Bank (Commercial Banking)
Kotak Mahindra Bank completed 5 full years of operation as a commercial bank in 2007-08. The Bank is the central platform for customer relationships across the Group. The banking business model is directed towards maximising revenue generation from customers by offering a wide range of products and services to address all their banking needs.
The Bank has five broad business segments:
* Lending* Retail liabilities* Corporate banking (including small and medium enterprises - SME)* Treasury and investments* Venture fund management (up to September 30, 2007)
The profit before tax of the Bank after taking a provision of Rs. 86 crore towards stressed cases in forex derivatives for 2007-08 was Rs. 397.78 crore up 96% as compared to Rs. 203.25 crore in 2006-07. The profit after tax of the Bank was up 108% to Rs. 293.93 crore as compared to Rs. 141.37 crore in 2006-07.
From the year ended 31st March, 2008, the Bank has adopted RBI's revised guidelines issued in April 2007 on segment reporting, however In order to facilitate comparison, given below is the summary of the operating segments of the Bank for the year ended 31st March, 2007 in accordance with Accounting Standard 17 (AS-17) on Segment Reporting issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India & the comparative numbers for the year ended 31st March, 2008: Rs. crore
Segmental Results 2007-08 2006-07 Growth %
Lending 339.95 112.41 202%Corporate Banking 202.64 101.65 99%Retail liabilities (146.68) (42.33) -Treasury and investments (5.83) 23.61 -Venture Fund Management 2.92 7.88 -Un-allocable revenue (net) 4.78 0.03 -Profit before tax 397.78 203.25 96%Profit after tax 293.93 141.37 108%
The capital adequacy of the Bank as on March 31, 2008 was 18.65% (Previous year 13.46 %). Tier I ratio was 14.46% (Previous year 8.81%).
The advances of the Bank as on March 31, 2008, stood at Rs. 15,552.22 crore up 42% YoY. As on March 31, 2008, the net NPAs of the Bank were at 0.38% of net advances excluding stressed assets portfolio (0.18% of net advances excluding stressed assets portfolio as on March 31, 2007). The Net NPAs of the Bank including stressed assets portfolio were at 1.78% (1.98% of net advances excluding stressed assets portfolio as on March 31, 2007).
As on March 31, 2008, the deposits of the Bank increased by 49% to Rs. 16,423.65 crore as compared to Rs. 11,000.09 crore as on March 31, 2007. Excluding the monies held as collection bankers, the deposits of the Bank increased by 56% to Rs. 16,004.80 crore as compared to Rs. 10,251.41 crore as on March 31, 2007.
As on March 31, 2008, total deposits comprised of Rs. 3,152.36 crore of demand deposits (Rs. 2,108.68 crore as on March 31, 2007), Rs. 1,517.54 crore of savings deposits (Rs. 887.70 crore as on March 31, 2007) and Rs. 11,753.74 crore of term deposits (Rs. 8,003.71 crore as on March 31, 2007). The demand and savings deposits as on March 31, 2008 (excluding monies held as collection banker) increased by 89% to Rs. 4,251.06 crore from Rs. 2,247.70 crore as on March 31, 2007. The Bank had over 7,49,000 deposit accounts as on March 31, 2008 (3,50,000 as on March 31, 2007).
The Bank continues to leverage its experience in the field of retail lending business and has shown a robust growth in disbursements and advances in this area. The total advances of the Bank increased by 42% from Rs. 10,924.07 crore in 2006-07 to Rs. 15,552.22 crore in 2007-08. The break up of the advances of the Bank is given below:
Advances March 31, March 31, Growth 2008 2007 %Commercial Vehicles & ConstructionEquipments 3,628.52 2,578.07 41%Personal Loans 2,896.24 1,955.34 48%Home Loans 2,639.98 1,753.32 51%Corporate Banking 2,386.69 2,382.54 -Agriculture Finance 1,664.25 677.63 146%Others 2,336.55 1,577.17 48%Total Advances 15,552.22 10,924.07 42%
Retail and commercial advances grew 54% from Rs. 8,541.53 crore in 2006-07 to Rs. 13,165.53 crore in 2007-08. The Bank has witnessed significant traction in some of the products like home finance, personal loans and agri-finance. The Bank has a widespread geographical distribution network to distribute its retail lending products.
Commercial vehicles & construction equipments advances recorded a growth of 41% to Rs. 3,628.52 crore in 2007-08. Margins continue to be under pressure due to the competitive nature of the industry. However, the Bank has maintained operating economies and delinquency levels comparable to among the best in the industry. Now, commercial vehicles & construction equipments division has become a one stop shop for the needs of transportation industry through the unique set of products to meet their specific requirements.
Saral loans which are essentially targeted at asset backed lending to customers, where organized credit does not reach easily, continued to expand its scope during 2007-08 to prime category of customers through business loans with or without asset backed security.
In 2006-07, personal loans grew by 48% to Rs. 2,896.24 crore and the Bank improved its presence across newer geographies. The Bank had launched home loans in 2003, which has grown 51% YoY to Rs. 2,639.98 crore.
With a view to focus on the agricultural sector, the Bank has a full fledged agri business division which has the required expertise and offers a range of project finance and working capital funding to meet the financing requirements of agricultural machinery, horticultural projects, storage warehouses and farmers implementing new farming techniques. The agriculture finance recorded a growth of 146% to Rs. 1,664.25 crore in 2007-08.
Asset reconstruction business is one of the key focus areas of the Bank, and the Bank has a pre-eminent position in the industry. The asset reconstruction division purchases NPAs from various banks, financial institutions, non-banking finance companies and corporates at prices that it believes are at a significant discount to the recoverable amount. Besides purchasing stressed assets, Kotak Bank also engages in the recovery of NPAs on behalf of other banks, NBFCs and financial institutions and provides advisory services to distressed companies.
The profit before tax for the lending segment grew by more than 200% from Rs. 112.41 crore in 2006-07 to Rs. 339.95 crore in 2007-08.
As on March 31, 2008, the Bank had 178 full-fledged branches across 109 towns and cities (105 branches across 69 cities as on March 31, 2007) and 313 ATMs.
The Bank offers a very wide range of products and services targeted at retail customers, delivered through a state-of-the-art technology platform. In addition to branch banking, it offers a wide range of products and advisory services from everyday banking to long-term investments which are delivered with a genuine understanding of the specific needs of the customer. The focus is on establishing a wider distribution network and operational efficiency thereby ensuring a controlled and profitable growth in business. In line with the concept of instant banking, the Bank has developed fully integrated free of cost Internet Banking Services with a host of value-added services. Kotak Internet Banking permits transfer of funds to accounts with the Bank as well as other banks across the country through savings and current accounts and complete access to Investment accounts and demat accounts. Kotak Bill Pay - a value added service, offers the convenience of paying over 115 service providers across the country. This includes telephone service providers, insurance, charities and many more.
As part of its platform, Kotak Bank offers depository services that allow customers to hold equity shares, Government securities, bonds and other securities in electronic form or DMAT form. Kotak Bank offers certified gold coins and bars, locker facilities, home banking, telephone banking, mobile banking, internet banking, SMS banking, direct pay services for online payments and debit cards, which are aided by a toll free, multi-product and multi-service contact centre that allows customers ease of accessing various products made available through Kotak Bank.
Kotak Bank offers home banking services to its customers which allows a customer to have cash or instruments picked up or delivered to the customer. Kotak Bank was among the first banks in India to offer home banking services. Kotak Bank also offers beat services which provides customers the facility of predefining the services and the time at which such services are required and unlike in home banking services the customer does not need to call Kotak Bank on need. Kotak Bank also has customised offerings for its corporate salary customers under the office banking services.
Kotak Bank's online platform also offers a number of services and payment solutions. The online trading platform of Kotak Bank is integrated with Kotak Securities. Kotak Bank also offers an online remittance service for non-resident Indians, called Funds to Home', along with other remittance services.
The retail liabilities segment reported a loss of Rs. 146.68 crore in 2007-08 as compared to a loss of Rs. 42.33 crore in 2006-07. The Bank continues to invest in this segment and expand its branch network with the objective of building a long-term, low-cost and stable deposit base.
The Bank proposes to have around 275 full-fledged branches by next year.
Kotak Bank's corporate banking revenues are derived from loan products and other value-added services offered by Kotak Bank to large and medium-sized corporations, financial institutions and public sector undertakings. These products include working capital facilities, medium-term financing, trade
services, transaction banking, fixed-income and foreign exchange services, as well as cash management services and the distribution of third party products.
The Bank offers the entire range of debt and fixed-income products with a team of experienced and highly qualified professionals who structure products to suit the dynamic and varied needs of customers across segments. The Bank's strength lies in its ability to customise instruments & structures, develop innovative products and then deliver these through high level of execution capabilities and a wide distribution network across the country.
The Bank's strategy in this business is to align the resources with the sectors where it can deliver value-added financial advisory solutions to the clients. The focus is on orientation of all organisational silos to customer service through greater cross-functional synergies. The Bank has managed to improvise the solutions approach' to meet varied needs of the clients.
In spite of intense competition, the Bank witnessed a significant growth in corporate bank advances (including SME). The profit before tax for the Corporate Banking segment was up 99% from Rs. 101.65 crore in 2006-07 to Rs. 202.64 crore in 2007-08.
Global financial markets witnessed significant volatilities in 2007-08, precipitated mainly by the emergence of sub-prime mortgage crisis in the US. Credit markets were in the danger of seizing up and major central banks injected liquidity in a collaborated manner. As the risks to economic growth increased, US Federal Reserve Board started to reduce the Fed Funds Target Rate in September 2007. Bank of England and Bank of Canada reduced policy rates in December 2007. In contrast, economies such as China and India faced pressures of foreign capital flows and maintained a tight monetary policy. The RBI increased the Repo Rate by 25 bps to 7.75% on 3rd April 2007 and also increased CRR from 6.50% to 7.50% in August and November 2007. Market Stabilization Scheme was used to a significant extent in 2007-08 to moderate rupee liquidity.
Consequently, 2007-08 saw alternating ease and tightness in rupee liquidity conditions dependant on policy changes of the RBI. On a net basis, average daily LAF repo injections stood at Rs. 4,568 crore in Q1, 2007-08 and increased to Rs. 13,472 crore in Q2 but dropped significantly to Rs. 7,820 crore in Q3 and further to Rs. 2,116 crore in Q4. Overnight money market rates swung between the lower and the upper end of the LAF corridor to reflect the conditions on rupee liquidity. The weighted average call market rates declined from 8.33% in April 2007 to 0.73% in July 2007 on account of a ceiling of Rs. 3,000 crore placed on daily Reverse Repo from March 5, 2007. However, once this ceiling was removed, the call money rate moved up in August and broadly stayed within the LAF corridor till December 2007. Liquidity conditions tightened in the Q4 and overnight money market rates moved above the Repo Rate in the last fortnight of February and in March 2008. The CBLO rates and the market Repo Rates moved in tandem with the overnight money market rates.
In the G-Sec market, primary market yields of 91-day, 182-day and 364-day T-bills softened in 2007-08, declining by 63-84 bps to 7.23%, 7.36% and 7.35% respectively by end-March 2008. In the secondary market, G-Sec yield with 1-year residual maturity declined from 7.55% at end-March 2007 to 7.49% in March 2008. The yield on G-Sec with 10-year residual maturity declined marginally from 7.97% in March 2007 to 7.93% in March 2008. Consequently, the yield spread between 10-year and 1-year G-sec increased from 42 bps at end-March 2007 to 44 bps at end-March 2008.
A sharp rise was witnessed in net capital inflows through FDI, FII flows to equity markets, short-term credit and through ECBs. These inflows were more than enough to accommodate a trade deficit of the size of USD 80 billion. The accretion to FX reserves of RBI was at USD 110 billion (including valuation changes) in 2007-08. The Indian rupee exhibited two-way movements in 2007-08. Rupee was at Rs. 43.59 per USD at end-March 2007 and appreciated by 5.6% to Rs. 41.29 by end-April 2007 and further to Rs. 39.27 by January 8, 2008. The Rupee depreciated thereafter to Rs. 39.97 per USD by end-March 2008. The Rupee-Euro exchange rate depreciated from Rs. 58.14 at end-March 2007 to Rs. 63.09 by end-March 2008. Overall, in 2007-08, the Rupee appreciated by 9.1% against USD and by 7.5% against Pound Sterling but depreciated by 7.7% against the Japanese Yen and by 7.8% against the Euro.
The Bank Treasury continued its endeavour of diversifying revenue sources. Bullion desk and Custodial services consolidated its operation during the year and contributed towards treasury revenues.
Venture Fund Management
The Bank has co-sponsored Kotak SEAF India Fund which has been set up as a Trust registered with the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) as a Venture Capital Fund. India Growth Fund (the Fund) was set up as a unit scheme of Kotak SEAF India Fund. The Private Equity division has an experienced investment management team with a successful track record in the venture capital industry. With effect from October 1, 2007 the investment management function for private equity funds has been assigned by the Bank to Kotak Investment Advisors Limited (erstwhile Kotak Mahindra Securities Limited), which is 100% beneficially owned by Bank.
Kotak Mahindra Capital Company(Investment Banking)
Kotak Mahindra Capital Company (KMCC) primarily operates as a full service Investment Bank. KMCC is also a trading cum Clearing Member of the National Stock Exchange on all three segments viz. Cash, F&O and WDM. KMCC has two main segments of business (a) Advisory and Transactional Services (b) Trading and Principal Investments.
Rs. croreSegment Results 2007-08 2006-07 Growth %
Advisory and Transactional Services 160.36 64.72 148%Trading and Principal Investments 13.55 28.58 -Add Unallocated Income 1.58 0.60 -Less Unallocated expenses 0.30 - -Profit before tax 175.19 93.90 175%Profit after tax 115.31 67.88 70%
The year under review saw KMCC regaining its top slot for IPOs in India with a market share of 79% in a market which saw 85 IPOs (previous year 76) worth Rs. 41,358 crores. KMCC also retained its number one position in QIPs (including Government divestments) for the third year in a row with a market share of 58% of the total value of issuances. Notable deals where Kotak Investment Banking played the book runner role were:
* Rs. 10,123 crore Reliance Power
* Rs. 9,188 crore DLF
* Rs. 2,984 crore Power Grid
* Rs. 1,771 crore Mundra Port & Special Economic Zone Ltd.
* Rs. 1,708 crore HDIL
* Rs. 856 crore Purvankara Projects
* Kotak Mahindra Bank Limited VIII
* Rs. 816 crore Central Bank of India
* Rs. 778 crore IVR Prime Urban Developers Ltd.
* Rs. 692 crore Edelweiss Capital Ltd.
* Rs. 494 crore Fortis Healthcare Ltd.
* Rs. 491 crore Future Capital Holdings Ltd.
* Rs. 439 crore BGR Energy Systems Ltd.
* Rs. 3,966 crore GMR Infrastructure Ltd.
* Rs. 2,100 crore IDFC Ltd.
* Rs. 1,615 crore Kotak Mahindra Bank Ltd.
* Rs. 1,360 crore Bank of India
* Rs. 1,221 crore GVK Power & Infrastructure Ltd.
* Rs. 1,200 crore PTC India Ltd.
* Rs. 814 crore Punj Lloyd Ltd.
KMCC was also awarded the 'Best Investment Bank' in the domestic category in India by Finance Asia for the second year in a row. KMCC also successfully completed the divestment of the Government stake in Maruti Udyog Limited valued at USD 582 million through an innovative French auction sale. KMCC helped corporates raise over ~USD 1,600 million of private equity funding with 18% market share.
During the year 2007-08, Kotak Investment Banking was very active in the M&A space and was ranked no. 1 in the India Advisory Partners League Tables for India Deals and ranked no. 4 in the Bloomberg M&A Financial Advisory League Tables for India Announced deals with a 22.9% market share. Some of the notable deals where KMCC was exclusive Financial Advisor were :
* SREI Infrastructure Finance Limited - Joint venture with BNP Paribas Leasing Group in a transaction valued at approx USD 190 million
* Gokaldas Exports sale of 50.1% stake to Blackstone and consequential open offer in a transaction with a aggregate value of USD 165 million
* Nagarjuna Construction Company Limited - Private Placement of Shares to Blackstone for USD 150 million
* Kotak Investment Banking was Financial Advisor to the Sheth Family in restructuring their shareholding in Great Offshore Limited in a transaction valued at approx USD 145 million
* Apollo Hospitals Enterprise Limited - Private placement of shares to Apax Partners for USD 104 million
* Pioneer Asset Management Company Limited Joint Venture with BOB AMC
* CAMS - sale of 30% equity stake to Private Equity investor Advent International
* Mahindra & Mahindra - merger of all its forging entities into Mahindra Forgings Limited creating the 2nd largest forging company in India.
* Wadhawan Retail - acquisition of 'Sabka Bazaar' and 'Home Store' chains of retail operations
* Private Equity Placement of Luminous Power Technologies Limited
* The following deals were announced and are expected to close in the first quarter of FY 09.
* CRH Plc - acquisition of MyHome Industries for a transaction value of Rs. 1,850 crore
* Thomas Cook- acquisition of Thomas Cook (India) & Thomas Cook Egypt etc for a transaction value of Rs. 1,500 crore.
KMCC has a healthy pipeline of mandates in various sectors for both equity offerings and Mergers & Acquisitions which are expected to be closed in 2008-09.
Kotak Securities (Stock broking)
Kotak Securities (KS) is India's leading stock broking company and accounted for 7.3% of total average daily market volumes in 2007-08 (9.0% in2006-07).
Whereas the year 2006-07 was an historic year for the Indian economy, as the benchmark BSE Sensex crossed the 14,800 mark, the year 2007-08, saw the benchmark BSE Sensex crossing the 21,200 mark on 10th January, 2008. Similarly the benchmark Nifty which had touched the year's high of 4,200 in 2006-07 crossed the 6,300 mark in the year 2007-08.
KS clocked average daily volumes of over Rs. 5,300 crore during FY08 as compared to around Rs. 3,700 crore during FY07.
Rs. croreParticulars 2007-08 2006-07 Growth
Total Income 1,330.03 833.93 59%Profit before Tax 580.21 365.12 59%Profit after Tax 408.69 255.71 60%
The profit after tax grew by 60% YoY to Rs. 408.69 crore in 2007-08. The growth was achieved due to increased volumes.
As on March 31, 2008, in the retail segment, KS had around 4,30,000 secondary market customers and serviced them through a network of 870 offices (own and franchised) across 309 cities.
The online trading portal continued to do well. A number of new schemes and products for online customers were launched. The number of online registered customers as on March 31, 2008 was in excess of 1,60,000. The online volumes continued to grow and crossed the Rs. 1,400 crore mark in the year 2007-08.
In the Portfolio Management Services (PMS), two of the close-ended schemes launched in earlier years matured in 2007-08. KS continues to focus on increasing product offerings and improving service standards.
The buoyant capital markets saw the number of primary market issues increasing over the last year. KS participated in the distribution of 90 public offer issues, mobilizing in excess of Rs. 73,200 crore in the retail segment itself.
KS's institutional equities division has made steady growth during the year. This was achieved through a larger customer base and servicing of global and domestic asset managers. Kotak Institutional Equities strives to provide high quality fundamental equity research and globally compliant execution service to clients. It has a strong research team with wide research coverage of over 130 companies. Kotak Institutional Equities clientele includes Foreign Institutional Investors, Financial Institutions, Banks, Mutual Funds and Insurance companies. Significant focus on Futures & Options segment contributed substantially to the revenue growth and market share.
Kotak Mahindra Prime Limited
(Car finance, Other lending)
Kotak Mahindra Prime Limited (KMP) is into car finance, engaged in financing of retail customers of passenger cars and multi-utility vehicles and inventory and term funding to car dealers.The Company finances new and used cars under retail loan, hire purchase and lease contracts. In addition to car finance, KMP also carries out other lending activities.
During 2007-08, KMP's gross advances crossed Rs. 5,900 crore mark recording an increase of 44% as compared to FY07.
FY08 witnessed volatile interest and increased interest rates being charged to the car finance customer. The pressure continued on maintaining the margins in the retail car finance business. KMP continued to focus on control over cost and credit losses, while maintaining its positioning in the car finance market. KMP also maintained its good relationships across car manufacturers, dealers and channel partners in the country.
Rs. croreParticulars 2007-08 2006-07 Growth
Total Income 739.97 443.63 67%Profit before tax 154.63 84.25 84%Profit after tax 100.62 57.34 75%
The passenger car market in India saw a growth of 11% for financial year 2007-08 as compared to a growth of 21% for 2006-07. Total unit sales of cars and MUV's crossed 15.18 lac units in financial year 2007-08. The car market has grown at a rapid pace due to robust economic growth, launch of new and improved models and stable automotive prices.
KMP has, carved out a niche for itself in the car-financing segment focusing on distribution and relationship management across manufacturers, dealers, channel partners and customers. Fee based income is an important initiative of KMP. Dedicated infrastructure is in place to give a further impetus to the growth of fee based income with a twin objective of offering value added services to customers and leveraging the large existing customer database to generate further fee based income.
Customer knowledge, easy accessibility through its wide network of branches and a firm commitment to deliver superior customer service are key drivers for KMP's performance.
KOTAK MAhINDRA ASSET MANAGEMENT COMPANY LIMITED KOTAK MAhINDRA TRUSTEE COMPANY LIMITED
Kotak Mahindra Asset Management Company Limited (KMAMC) and Kotak Mahindra Trustee Company Limited (KMTC) are wholly owned subsidiaries of Kotak Mahindra Bank. KMAMC is the asset manager of Kotak Mahindra Mutual Fund (KMMF) and KMTC is the trustee company.
Indian mutual funds industry is evolving, in terms of breadth and depth. It is broadening in terms of total number of investors it is catering to and deepening in terms of its product offering and investment and distribution practices.
The following is the list of policy level changes effected during 2007-2008 that had an influence on the mutual funds industry:
* With effect from April 16, 2007, guidelines have been introduced for parking of funds in short term deposits of scheduled commercial banks, pending deployment.
* With effect from July 2, 2007, Permanent Account Number (PAN) would be the sole identification number for all participants transacting in the securities market irrespective of the amount of transaction with a view to strengthen Know Your Client (KYC) norms, identify every participant in the securities market and ensure a sound audit trail.
* The applicable limits for overseas investments by mutual funds has been increased to USD 7 billion subject to a maximum of USD 300 million per mutual fund. The overall ceiling for investment in overseas exchange traded funds that invest in securities has been limited to USD 1 billion subject to a maximum of USD 50 million per mutual fund.
* With effect from January 4, 2008, No entry load will be charged for direct applications received by an asset management company either through the internet, submitted to the asset management company or collection centre/investor services centre which are not routed through any distributor/ broker.
* With effect from January 31, 2008, the provision of charging initial issue expense and amortization of the same has been removed. All mutual fund schemes shall meet the sales, marketing and other such expenses connected with sales and distribution of schemes only from the entry load.
The Average Assets under Management (AAUM) for the year 2007-2008 was Rs. 19,739 Crores, as compared to Rs. 12,829 crores for the year 2006-2007 a growth of 54%. The number of folios as on March 31, 2008 was about 9.40 lakhs as compared to about 5.36 lakhs as of March 31, 2007, a growth of 75%.
The year saw the launch of several new schemes and facilities, increased distribution reach and market expansion. During the year under review, the mainstream debt schemes of the Fund continued their satisfactory performance. Debt schemes of Kotak Mahindra Mutual Fund won awards at the ICRA Mutual Fund Awards 2008. Kotak Bond Short Term was ranked 7-star and has been awarded the Gold Award for Best Performance in the category of open-ended debt -short term for one year as well as 3 year period ending December 31, 2007. Kotak Flexi Debt was ranked 5 Star - indicating performance among the top 10% in the category of open ended liquid plus for three year period ending December 31, 2007. Kotak Floater Long Term was ranked 5 star fund - indicating performance among the top 10% in the category of Open Ended Floating Rate Fund for one year period ending December 31, 2007.
The debt schemes managed by Kotak Mahindra Mutual Funds have received over 14 Performance awards over the past eight years from CNBC, CRISIL, OUTLOOK MONEY, ICRA online and Lipper Fund Awards.
Kotak Mutual Fund was also adjudged the Best Debt Fund House at Outlook Money Awards 2007.
The performance of the diversified equity schemes remained satisfactory with Kotak Opportunities showing commendable performance. Kotak Opportunities was rated 5 Star by value research as on 31st March 2008. It was also ranked 56th in the Lipper's list of worlds 100 top performing stock funds of 2007 out of a set of 24, 887 funds tracked by it. During the year under review, Kotak 30, Kotak Opportunities, Kotak Tax Saver, Kotak Balance paid out dividends.
KMAMC 2007-08 2006-07 Growth
Total Income 68.08 54.43 25%Profit before tax 2.22 10.60 -Profit after tax 1.03 6.83 -
Rs. croreKMTC 2007-08 2006-07 Growth %
Total Income 10.98 7.35 49%Profit before tax 10.11 6.74 50%Profit after tax 6.89 4.64 48%
The two key growth drivers would be to increase visibility further in metro and non-metro regions and focus on geographic expansion. New product offerings, value added service initiatives and continued focus on fund performance would also hold key to growth.
KOTAK INVESTMENT ADVISORS LIMITED (FORMERLY KOTAK MAHINDRA SECURITIES LIMITED)
(Alternate asset management & advisory)
Demerger and restructuring
During 2006-07, a petition was filed before the Hon'ble High Court of Judicature at Mumbai in respect of a Scheme of Arrangement between the Company (i.e. erstwhile Kotak Mahindra Securities Limited), Kotak Mahindra Capital Company Limited (KMCC) and their respective shareholders and creditors (Scheme) for demerger of undertaking comprising of the Trading and Clearing operations and strategic investments of the Company to KMCC.
Upon receipt of necessary approvals, the demerger was completed on 3rd September, 2007.
The name of the Company was changed from Kotak Mahindra Securities Limited to Kotak Investment Advisors Limited from August 20, 2007. The new name is in consonance with the Company's new main objects and business activity i.e. alternate asset management/ advisory services.
The Group wanted to expand its presence in the alternate asset management business. To facilitate and expedite the same, all alternate asset management / advisory activities of the Group were assigned to Kotak Investment Advisors Limited (KIAL or the Company).
With effect from October 1, 2007, KIAL became the investment manager and advisor for all private equity and realty funds of Kotak Mahindra Group. The Private Equity team (which was earlier functioning as part of Kotak Mahindra Bank Limited ('the Bank')) and the Realty Fund team (which was part of Kotak Mahindra Investments Limited, a subsidiary of the Bank) have move to KIAL.
The aggregate alternate assets managed / advised by the Company as March 31, 2008 was Rs. 5,636 crore (USD 1.4 billion). During 2007-08, the Group raised Rs. 4,471 crore (USD 1.1 billion) as commitments for private equity and realty funds. The funds were primarily raised from the Group's customer base.
Since this business was not carried out in the Company during the previous year the financial results are not comparable.
Rs. croreParticulars 2007-08 2006-07
Total Income 37.81 2.73Profit before tax 20.71 0.60Profit after tax 13.47 0.35
Private Equity Funds
(a) Kotak SEAF India Fund
Kotak SEAF India Fund was formed in August 2004 and is registered with SEBI as a Venture Capital Fund. India Growth Fund (IGF) was set up as a unit scheme of Kotak SEAF India Fund with investors from select institutional and high net worth investors, from both India and abroad, on a private placement basis.
IGF had its final closing in September 2005 with aggregate capital commitments of Rs. 707 crores. IGF has made 15 investments across diversified sectors such as logistics, technology services, retail, media and entertainment, engineering, bio-technology, textiles, aviation, telecom and power infrastructure and financial exchanges.
(b) Kotak India Venture Fund I
Kotak India Venture Fund I (KIVF-I) is a domestic venture capital fund with the investment objective of making investments primarily in companies operating in Biotechnology and Life Sciences sector. KIVF-I held its final closing in July 2007 with a total corpus of Rs. 205 crore. KIVF-I has made three investments till date.
(c) Kotak India Growth Fund II
During the year, Kotak Private Equity Group launched its second growth fund named, Kotak India Growth Fund II (KIGF-II) and KIAL was appointed as the Investment Manager. The investment objective of KIGF-II is to provide long-term capital appreciation to its investors by investing in privately negotiated equity and equity related instruments in mid-sized corporates and working with the managements of such corporates to accelerate their growth. KIGF-II shall target companies with strong management teams and stable cash flows that are seeking capital for their organic and inorganic growth plans.
KIGF-II held its closing on March 27, 2008 with aggregate capital commitments of Rs. 1,749 crore from Kotak Group's customers on a private placement basis.
(a) Kotak Mahindra Realty Fund
Kotak Mahindra Realty Fund (KMRF) was formed in May 2005 as a trust and registered as a venture capital fund with SEBI.
KMRF is an umbrella trust and the trustees have the power to form various schemes. The primary objective of KMRF is to invest in and provide finance to real estate sector and allied services sectors in India with an intention to generate long-term capital appreciation. Kotak India Real Estate Fund-I (KIREF-I) has been set up as a unit scheme of KMRF. KIREF-I had its final closing in February 2006 with committed contributions of Rs. 458 crore from the domestic, institutional and HNI investors Rs. KIREF-I has drawn down 100% of its commitments and has fully committed its capital (net of expenses and management fees) in 8 investments across various assets classes in the real estate sector. KIREF-I made a part divestment from one of its portfolio investments and distributed Rs. 23.76 crore to its investors. KIREF-I's investments have begun to mature, and KIAL expects to harvest some of the investments over the next couple of years.
(b) Kotak Alternate Opportunities (India) Fund
Kotak Alternate Opportunities (India) Fund (KAOIF) is the second domestic real estate fund of the alternate assets business group set up with an objective of investing in the securities of companies operating in real estate, infrastructure and allied services sectors in India with an intention to provide long-term capital appreciation to its investors. KAOIF held its closing in July 2007 with the aggregate capital commitments of Rs. 1,577 crore from Kotak Group's customers on a private placement basis. KAOIF has drawn down 37% of its corpus and has till date made five investments. KAOIF is a 7-year fund with an option to increase up to two additional one year periods. KAOIF proposes to have a well diversified portfolio of its investments in large integrated residential townships, state-of-the-art IT parks, contemporary shopping mall destinations and hospitality projects.
Apart from acting as investment manager to the above domestic private equity and realty funds, the Company also provides non-binding advisory services to offshore funds managed by Kotak Group's international subsidiaries.
During the next financial year i.e. 2008-09, the Group plans to raise an infrastructure fund from domestic and offshore investors.
Kotak Mahindra Old Mutual Life Insurance
Kotak Mahindra Old Mutual Life Insurance is a 74:26 joint venture between Kotak Mahindra Group & Old Mutual Plc; South Africa Kotak Life Insurance offers life insurance, deferred annuity and employee benefit products to individuals and groups. The business is distributed through three distribution channels viz. Tied Agency, Alternate Channels and Group Insurance. The business is value-driven with a focus on long-term shareholder value and an aspiration to meet policyholder expectations.
Since its inception in 2001, Kotak Life Insurance has been witnessing a steady growth and is expected to continue these upward trends.
Currently the penetration of life insurance in India is 4% (approx) and 3/4th of the insurable population is without life insurance cover. This signifies a huge potential for growth for the insurance industry. And factors like a burgeoning middle & affluent class, rise in disposable income, lack of social security and the governments support through tax benefits have only added to this growth story.
All these factors were favourable to the industry in the year 2007-08, which is reflected in the growth in premium income over last year.
The premium income for the year grew to Rs. 1691.14 crore (previous year Rs. 971.51 crore). During the year, Kotak Life Insurance wrote over 3,13,771 policies (previous year 1,65,203 policies) of adjusted first year annualized premium (single premium weighted at 1/10th) of Rs. 1,051.68 crore (previous year Rs. 572.62 crore), representing a sum assured of Rs. 33,102 crore (previous year Rs. 20,163 crore).
Introduction of new products and focus on service delivery were primary drivers for the growth of the private life insurers during 2007-08. Keeping with our product philosophy of delivering innovative & pragmatic financial solution to our customers, Kotak Life Insurance introduced four new products, targeted at different consumer needs.
(i) Kotak Platinum Advantage Plan - A unique blend of safety and returns, featuring capital protection and embedded investment advice which works to maximize customer's wealth. Features like aggressive market-linked growth options and life cover make this plan a wellrounded financial solution.
(ii) Kotak Eternal Life Plans - Participating whole life plans that provide enhanced protection till the golden age of 99. The plans provide for a high cover at lower premiums, cash lumpsum benefits at desired stage and also the means to care for loved ones in the second innings of life.
(iii) Kotak Surakshit Jeevan - An enhanced protection & long-term savings plan with the assurance of delivering financial independence. This plan keeps pace with the customer's changing needs at every step of life, be it protection for the family or savings for the future.
(iv) Kotak Smart Advantage - This plan offers guaranteed returns on the first year premium and upto 100% premium allocation from second year onwards. This Unit-Linked plan also gives guaranteed bonus additions at regular intervals helping the customer to accumulate wealth systematically, over the long-term.
As of March 31, 2008, Kotak Life Insurance had around 35,000 active life advisors who are continuously being trained to facilitate them to advise customers in a proper manner. As on 31st March, 2008, the Company had 235 corporate agents and 143 empanelled brokers. In addition, the Company also had referral bancassurance tie-ups with 36 co-operative banks during the year under review
Currently, Kotak Life Insurance operates from 150 branches in 109 cities with a primary focus on the mass affluent and affluent population. During the year 76 new branches were opened and this expansion was in second tier cities which offer good opportunity and also provide a window to
2007-08 2006-07 Growth
Premium income 1,691.14 971.51 74%New Business (Gross) 1,106.62 614.94 80%New Business (APE) 1,051.68 572.62 84%First year regular premium 1,045.57 553.04 89%Deficit 71.81 58.35 -
The Bank has overseas subsidiaries with offices in Mauritius, London, Dubai, Singapore, New York and San Francisco. Kotak Mahindra Inc set up a branch in San Francisco in September 2007.
The overseas subsidiaries are mainly engaged in investment advisory and investment management of funds, management of GDR/FCCB issuances, broker and broker dealer activities as well as investments.
The assets under management through international operations increased from USD 1.4 billion as on March 31, 2007 to USD 2.1 billion as on March 31, 2008 translating to an increase of 26%. During the year under review, the Kotak Mahindra (UK) was appointed Investment Manager to a number of India focussed funds including Kotak India Focus Fund, Kotak Fund - Indian Multicap Fund, Kotak India Concentrated Growth Fund. The Kotak Fund - Indian Multicap Fund will be the principal vehicle for raising funds from European Investors. During the forthcoming year, the international business intends to launch a number of niche asset management products, which shall increase the presence and penetration of the Group in the international markets.
Buoyancy in the Indian capital markets led to an increased activity level during the year. The Company has increased staff levels in the UK, Dubai and Singapore and foresees significant increase in fund flows.
It is expected that sustained investment activity into the Indian Equity markets will result in a substantial increase in the assets under management and this will provide a significant boost to the revenues of the Company.
The Company proposes to shift some of its Investment Management activities to Singapore on receiving permission from the Monetary Authority of Singapore.
Scaling business volumes in 2007-2008, were ably supported by technology with a concentration on customer service, information security, and, as in previous years, innovation.
New services were launched, and existing services were extended to serve customers better. A new statementing engine provided customers with information across products availed by them. Services such as RTGS and NEFT payments were made available on the internet and through the branches. In addition, to ensure that the customer gets an improved (and similar) experience across the Group, implementation of a common CRM platform was commenced. The first stage of which went live this year, making Kotak the second largest Siebel-CRM installation in India.
The year also saw a launch of an extensive Information Security Program, to strengthen processes and further raise awareness. Continuous patrolling of Kotak websites was instituted, 2-factor authentication for the complete security of our online trading customers was introduced, and the Bank acquired ISO 27001 certification in DC operations & Network operations.
The efficacy of these measures, have been validated by multiple external sources. Kotak Bank received the Asian Banker Summit award for the Best Banking Securities Systems Project, the Best IT Implementation Award for the Security Assurance Program, the Microsoft Security Strategist award for Outstanding Leadership in the field of information security, and the Banking Technology Award 2008 for its security policy & procedures.
Technology innovation was lead by the launch of Mobile Banking Services. The bank architected an operator independent, device independent platform that can be extended to multiple products and launched payment and mutual fund transactions on it.
The Brokerage business launched account information available on mobile phones.
Productivity improvements resulting from workflow automation was a focus for the year. A state of the art product was evaluated and procured, to be implemented across the Group. The life insurance business proved the business benefits of workflow automation, with enhancements that resulted in straight through processing proposals increasing from 32% to 50%, and total processing time decreasing from 4 hours to 2 hours per proposal.
The strategy of integrated technology platforms, to provide synergies across the Kotak Group was extended during the year. 13 entities of the Kotak Group migrated to a common General Ledger system, and the Anti-Money Laundering solution already in use by the Bank, was extended to Kotak Life Insurance and Kotak Securities. In addition, a common Document Management System was introduced for the Group.
As the business scaled, technology upgraded its infrastructure for firewalls, storage, processors, backups and desktop management across the Group. With centralization of datacenters (for life insurance, asset management, treasury and international businesses) and common networks, infrastructure is now shareable across the Group. Unified procurement arising from centralizing was leveraged to obtain improved terms for purchasing from vendors.
Ultimately, there is no better acknowledgement of excellence, than one conferred by peers. The Indian Banking Associating bestowed 6 of its 15 awards, including the prestigious IT Team of the Year' to Kotak Bank. Thus, setting it apart, as a leader in technology solutions.
The diversified business activities require the Bank to identify, measure, aggregate and manage risks effectively and to allocate capital among its businesses appropriately. The risk management framework lays emphasis on the Group's risk philosophy, proper organizational structure, risk and reward balance and is supported by dedicated monitoring and risk measuring mechanism.
Risk Control systems are being enhanced with a view to enable business gain and maintain competitive advantage while growing assets profitably. Consumer Banking continues to take initiatives to further improve its risk management capability.
Basic Principles and Risk and Capital Management
The Board is involved in defining risk appetite and capital at risk for the Bank, at an integrated level, covering all activities of the Bank. Development of the risk strategy and risk appetite is an ongoing process and is based on past experience and future plans. The risk strategy is consistent with the Board's overall risk tolerance, management's expertise in each business unit and the total financial amount that the Bank is prepared to place at risk of loss (Capital at risk).
The Management Committee provides overall risk management supervision for the consolidated Group as a whole. Various risk committees, namely Asset Liability Committee (ALCO), Credit Committee, First Tier Audit Committee, Risk Management Committee, Information Security Committee etc, review specific risk areas and supervise the activities of enterprise wide risk management.
Categories of Risk
The most important risks are specific banking risks and reputation risk as well as risk arising from the general business environment.
Specific Banking Risks
In consonance with the guidelines of Reserve Bank of India with regards to BASEL II, the risk management processes of the Bank distinguish among four kinds of banking risk: credit, market, liquidity and operational risk.
Risk Management Tools
The Bank uses a comprehensive range of quantitative tools and metrics for monitoring and managing risks. Some of these tools are common to a number of risk categories whereas the others are tailored to address the particular features of specific risk categories.
Both with a view to bringing in risk sensitivity through policies and to duly meet the regulatory requirements, the Bank continually assesses the appropriateness and the reliability of the quantitative tools and metrics in the light of the changing risk environment
Credit risk arises from all transactions that give rise to actual, contingent or potential claims against any counterparty, borrower or obligor. The Bank's credit exposure is primarily categorized into retail and wholesale borrowers. Retail exposure is mostly term loans and asset backed other than personal loans. Wholesale borrowers are internally categorized into emerging corporate, corporate and financial institutional group. While retail credit lending is largely based on predefined parameters and is mostly decentralized, credit appraisal is undertaken by an independent dedicated credit risk team for wholesale exposure. XV Kotak Mahindra Bank Limited
Credit Risk Management Tools
During the year the Bank has put in place an internal credit rating model for the comprehensive risk assessment of the wholesale banking credit exposures. Each obligation is evaluated on two dimensions to assign obligor and facility rating. The rating tool rates Large Corporates, SMEs, Brokers, Traders and Services separately. The parameters in each risk entity (viz. business risk, industry risk, management risk and financial risk) to evaluate ratings and appropriate weight-age to these parameters have been decided based on past experience and after assessing the rating methodology. The final output of the model helps the bank to assess the expected probable loss number attached to each borrower after duly considering the securities provided to mitigate the risk. The internal credit rating system would facilitate Bank's migration to internal rating-based approaches of Basel II Accord in due course. The rating tool grades obligors into 18 categories and each rating category has been assigned a Probability of Default (PD) number. The facility extended by the bank to the borrower is also rated on a comprehensive scale of 30 categories of ratings. Such a facility rating provides the Loss Given Default (LGD) number to each facility rating category. The combination of Obligor and Facility Rating provides Combined Rating which is divided into 18 categories.
Internal rating is assigned to each obligor based on quantitative and qualitative factors and forms an important element of credit lending decision. These ratings are reviewed at least annually.
Independent credit appraisal, credit administration, credit monitoring, credit measurement and industry research group are in place encompassing the entire gamut functions facilitating integrated credit risk management.
The Bank's Credit Appraisal process incorporates a review of all aspects of the proposals including all risks to ensure that it is within the acceptable risk framework decided by the Board and earns the indicated risk-adjusted return.
The Credit Administration team ensures that all credit covenants are properly fulfilled prior to disbursal. Once a credit has been extended, adherence of the same to sanctioned terms is scrupulously monitored by the Credit Monitoring team.
The Industry Research Group guides the bank in building its portfolio with emphasis on reducing sector concentration and identifying sectors to grow the business. The Group conducts regular portfolio reviews tracks significant change in the operating environment and undertakes rapid impact analysis on the portfolio.
The robustness of the risk management systems put in place is evident from the healthy portfolio maintained by the Bank.
Counterparty credit risk arising out of derivatives and forward contracts
The bank has adopted current exposure method to measure counterparty credit exposure. This comprises marked to market value of outstanding contracts and potential future exposure for the remaining maturity. The bank earmarks an estimated maximum exposure against a counterparty limit at the time of entering into a transaction based observed movement of various risk factors.
Credit Risk Management Principles
The Bank measures and manages its credit risk based on the following principles
* The extension & renewal of any Credit Facility to a particular borrower requires Credit Approval at the appropriate authority level. The Rating Tool, which is already in place, helps the authorities in such decision
* The approval of all the limits to the counterparties should be in line with the Corporate Credit Policy and Collateral Risk Management Policy of the bank. Such approval should generally be within the Bank's portfolio guidelines and credit strategies
* There will be a regular review of the credit worthiness of the borrowers not only using the rating tool of the bank but also by its Credit Risk Management team
Market risk arises from the uncertainty concerning changes in market prices and rates viz. interest rates, equity prices, foreign exchange rates, the correlations among them and their levels of volatility.
Market risk management framework is laid down in the investment and ALM policy of the bank. The bank runs exposure on interest rates, equity, foreign exchange and a combination of them through derivatives. Exposure is managed through a set of risk limits such as open position, PVO1, gap limits, cash value etc. These limits are monitored on daily basis by the independent mid-office cell and are reviewed based on market conditions on frequent basis by ALCO.
The Bank computes value at risk (VAR) for the aforesaid risk on an individual portfolio basis as well as on aggregated portfolios basis after considering correlation effect. Value at risk is reported on a daily basis and back testing and stress testing is undertaken to confirm the validity of the measurement models.
Value at Risk:
Value at Risk (VaR) is among one of the techniques used to monitor and measure the market risk. The VaR approach derives a quantitative measure of market risk under normal market conditions, estimates the potential future loss that will not be exceeded in a defined period of time and with a defined confidence level. VaR is calculated for internal reporting purpose using a 99% confidence level and 10 days holding period on daily basis. The VaR model takes into account all the material risk factors assuming normal market conditions. We calculate VaR using the historical observation techniques giving more weights to the recent observed movements.
Value at Risk Analysis for the year 2007-08 is as below:
Rs. croreValue at Risk Amount crore
Maximum 65.73Minimum 11.58Average 30.90Year End 31.03.2008 28.89
We use back testing to verify the accuracy of the VaR calculations. We compare the actual movement in the portfolio with the VaR estimates.
While Value at Risk, calculated on the daily basis, measures the maximum potential loss in the normal market conditions, we also value our portfolio under the extreme market condition by using the Stress testing methodology. According to the predefined stress scenarios, underlying risk factors are stressed for sudden and extreme change in the market movement rate risk of the balance sheet is managed through gap analysis, especially duration gap of the assets and liabilities.
Liquidity risk is the risk arising from the potential inability of the Bank to meet all payment obligations when they become due. Liquidity risk is managed through setting limits on the negative gap for maturity bucket. As part of liquidity risk management the bank conducts behaviour analysis of its CASA, term deposits and other products to analyze the impact of the inbuilt option. The Bank has also put in place a formal Contingency Liquidity Plan to forewarn/mitigate adverse liquidity situations.
Operational risk is the potential for incurring losses due to failure of employees, technology, system or a process and disasters, projects, external factors, frauds etc, including legal and regulatory risk. The bank seeks to ensure that key operational risk are managed in a timely and effective manner through a framework of policies, procedures and tools to identify, assess, monitor, control and report such risks. The Group internal audit team and the compliance department have set a sound platform for operational risk management, along with the operational risk management unit.
The following techniques are applied by bank to manage operational risks
- All products and process notes need review by all concerned departments including Compliance, Legal and Risk Management.
- Unusual event reporting and creation of loss database have been institutionalized as a stepping stone towards measurement of operational risk. Analysis of unusual events assists identifying sources of operational risks and taking adequate risk mitigating measures to minimize those risks.
- During the year, bank launched the focus initiative'. Through this initiative, Bank aims to increase the overall level of operational risk awareness amongst staff using various tools. The workshops conducted as part of the initiative rolled out bank's Risks and Controls Self Assessment' program for formally assessing the operational risks and related key risk indicators to monitor these risks. These workshops were attended by large number of participants representing different business/ operations/ support functions from across bank. Bank plans to hold more such programs to cover all business/operating/support functions.
Bank is already calculating operational risk capital charge using Basic Indicator Approach' as prescribed under the guidelines issued by the Reserve Bank of India. Above measures will equip bank in adopting more sophisticated risk based approaches in future for the purpose of computing operational risk capital charge (subject to regulatory review and approval).
The Bank has made considerable progress in capturing data and implementing systems with regards to computing capital adequacy as per the standardized approach of Basel II for credit risk. Efforts are on to automate the process of capital computation as per Basel II and application system is being implemented to that effect. As on March 31, 2008 the estimated capital adequacy ratio as per the new guidelines is 17.53% as compared to 17.36% under the current guidelines.
The revised framework of capital adequacy norms is applicable to Indian banks having operational presence outside India and foreign banks with
effect from March 31, 2008 and other scheduled commercial banks have been encouraged to migrate with effect from March 31, 2008, but not later than March 31, 2009. A multi-disciplinary group having members from various department of the banks have been formed to ensure setting process and develop infrastructure to comply with the requirements of Basel II.
During the year the Bank has successfully implemented the K-Ram rating system. The rating is based on management, industry, financial and business risk parameters all of which are evaluated to give an obligor rating to the borrower. In addition, a separate facility risk rating is also undertaken by K-RAM, which assists in appropriate structuring of facilities. This issuer and facility rating is in line with Basel II requirements. All customers are compulsorily rated and these ratings are subject to periodic reviews. The Bank also has in place a system to track rating migration.
A stress testing policy has also been formulated to periodically review the impact of the dynamic external environment on the portfolio. The Bank is also compiling a document on the RAROC framework for pricing of loans as is required by the Reserve Bank of India.
Bank's Operational risk capital charge using Basic Indicator Approach as per Reserve Bank of India guidelines worked out to Rs. 160.23 Crores (Rs. 1,602.30 million) as on March 31, 2008.
In addition to the regular monitoring and oversight, in the coming years, the focus of risk function would be to develop sophisticated measurement tools to statistically quantify risk in all lending businesses and operations.
The Group has in place an independent and comprehensive compliance structure to address compliance and reputation risk on a group wide basis. The Board of the Bank has adopted during the year a Group Wide Compliance Policy. The compliance function is headed by a senior resource in all Group companies. The Compliance function in the Bank was also suitably strengthened to meet the requirements of the RBI guidelines on Compliance Management issued during the year. The Compliance function for international subsidiaries was enhanced significantly by recruitment of several senior resources. The Group Head Compliance reports to the Board of Directors of the Bank. The Compliance Department oversees adherence to all regulatory prescriptions both domestic and international. The department is also responsible for ensuring adherence to Know Your Customer (KYC) and Anti-Money Laundering (AML) standards. The senior compliance resource in each of the Group companies is also designated as the Principal Officer under the Prevention of Money Laundering Act 2002. The Bank and the Insurance subsidiary have implemented a sophisticated AML application. The application is being rolled across all key subsidiaries.
Dissemination of regulatory information in the Bank is done on an online basis by using knowledge management tools. Dissemination of regulatory information in key subsidiaries was also enhanced significantly during the year. The department also brings out a quarterly compliance newsletter to update employees on regulatory developments. The Department is actively involved in both onsite and online training for the employees in Compliance matters. During the year the Department has brought a Handbook on Foreign Exchange Transactions to facilitate education of employees and customers.
The department is also responsible for ensuring adherence to standards and codes by Reserve Bank of India (RBI), Banking Codes and Standards Board of India (BCSBI), Indian Banks Association (IBA), Foreign Exchange Dealers' Association of India (FEDAI), Fixed Income Money Market and Derivatives Association (FIMMDA), Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI), Association of Mutual Funds in India (AMFI), Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA), and international regulators / SRO's.
The Bank and its subsidiaries have adequate compliance monitoring and reporting systems in place. They have also adopted a Whistle Blower Policy' encouraging employees to report any instances of irregularity to senior management.
The Group has hired a reputed consulting firm to benchmark the compliance processes and practices with the best in the world. During the year the exercise has been completed in Kotak Securities Limited.
The Bank's internal audit department undertakes a comprehensive audit of all branches and businesses under a risk-based internal audit model recommended by the Reserve Bank of India and approved by the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors. An annual risk-based internal audit plan is drawn up on the basis of risk profiling of Bank's branches and businesses/ departments which is approved by the Audit Committee. The internal audit department seeks assistance from external firms in respect of Information Technology audits.
After assessing the overall risk of a branch or business or department, the Bank takes measures to minimize such risk. Senior officers also assess and evaluate the mitigating measures taken by the branch during their visits. Higher risk areas and branches are targeted for more frequent audits.
The Bank has a process of concurrent audit of critical functions using external consulting and/or accounting firm(s). Concurrent audit is also carried out for the Bank's treasury operations, in particular for sovereign and corporate debt investments and foreign exchange operations. This has been undertaken to ensure the existence of and adherence to internal and regulatory controls.
The subsidiaries of the Bank, are also subjected to internal audit, either by internal teams or by external auditors. All auditors report to the respective Audit Committees. The scope of all companies is approved by the respective Audit Committees. All audit reports are placed before the Audit Committee of the respective companies and key and significant issues communicated to the Bank (the holding company). Mitigating measures are taken where risk is more than acceptable levels.
As on March 31, 2008, the Bank along with its subsidiaries employed around 20,000 employees at various locations in India and abroad, an addition of around 9,000 employees over 2007-08. The Bank was adjudged the 10th Best Employer in India by the Hewitt Best Employer Survey in 2007.
The Bank and its subsidiaries continue to invest substantially in people development and have in place policies & processes to ensure employee welfare and skill development. The training programs ensure holistic development of the employees by equipping them with not only functional skills, but with skills necessary for leadership effectiveness and self-development. A robust performance and Talent Management system ensures that the best talent is acquired, nurtured and developed. This year the Bank through its Corporate Social Responsibility initiative has also embarked on projects relating to Environment protection and helping the cause of the underprivileged.
Through some best-in-class and innovative HR practices, the Bank and its subsidiaries strive to build a work force that is committed to delivering world class products & services to its customers across the globe.
Opportunities and Threats
* Scalability through increased brand awareness, market penetration and service offerings across all categories of financial services
* Increase in customer's wallet share
* Leveraging the latest technology for providing quality and client centric services
* Oil prices and rising inflation
* Increasing interest rate scenario
* Competition from local and multinational players
* Changing global financial markets
Kotak Mahindra Group's results for the financial year demonstrate the strong fundamental growth in the India story. However, the economy inhibits the concerns over the impact of inflation, the weakening of the global economy and rising crude oil prices.
The Group believes that the present economic scenario offers immense opportunities for it to grow in scale and reach coupled with value creation. The Group is confident that with its integrated business model it shall be able to take advantage of the significant growth opportunities in the coming years.
This document contains certain forward-looking statements based on current expectations of Kotak Mahindra management. Actual results may vary significantly from the forward-looking statements contained in this document due to various risks and uncertainties. These risks and uncertainties include the effect of economic and political conditions in India and outside India, volatility in interest rates and in the securities market, new regulations and Government policies that may impact the businesses of Kotak Mahindra Group as well as its ability to implement the strategy. Kotak Mahindra does not undertake to update these statements.
This document does not constitute an offer or recommendation to buy or sell any securities of Kotak Mahindra Bank or any of its subsidiaries and associate companies. This document also does not constitute an offer or recommendation to buy or sell any financial products offered by Kotak Mahindra, including but not limited to units of its mutual fund and life insurance policies.
All investments in mutual funds and securities are subject to market risks and the NAV of the schemes may go up or down depending upon the factors and forces affecting the securities market. The performance of the sponsor, Kotak Mahindra Bank Limited, has no bearing on the expected performance of Kotak Mahindra Mutual Fund or any schemes thereunder.
Figures for the previous year have been regrouped wherever necessary to conform to current year's presentation.